Suez Canal

Suez Canal Forgeries

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A Short History

These stamps were issued in virtue of an authorization granted by the Khedive (viceroy). The stamps were in use for fewer than 40 days during 1868 before the Egyptian government declared them illegitimate. After the suppression of the Company’s postal service on midnight of 15th August 1868, the stamps which had been put into circulation ceased to have any postal validity.

Those that remained unused in private hands could be exchanged for cash up to 31st August 1868, as indicated in the circular of 13th August. Shortly after the withdrawal of these stamps, the Company received requests from collectors for various quantities.

On the 9th September 1868, the Company sent from Ismailia ten sets to the U.S. Consul General in Alexandria, and on the 21st October twelve sets to Mr. Felix Carotti, legal adviser to the General Directorate of Posts in Florence. It has now been established that the greater part of the remainders of these stamps were sold several years later, in large multiples and complete sheets, to two well known Parisian postage stamp dealers, namely Arthur Maury and Victor Robert.

Sometime before 1940, Mr. Emin, the son-in-law of Maury, disposed of several complete sheets of the 20 centimes.
According to Jean Boulad d’Humières, the number of stamps issued was:

Denomination — Manufactured — Remaindered — Maximum Possible Used
1 centime, black — 6,020 — 3,214 — 2,806
5c, green — 31,232 — 28,524 — 2,708
20c, blue — 105,644 — 93,867 — 11,777
40c, red — 10,863 — 9,376 — 1,487

The number of known used covers is 21 (as of 1985). In addition, only a small number of off-cover examples appear legitimate. So any offered as used are most likely forgeries or altered fakes.

The Forgers

Philip Spiro

hilip Spiro was the proprietor of the well-established printing firm of Spiro Brothers of Hamburg 1864 they added facsimile postage stamps and over the next fifteen years expanded their range to include more than 400 different stamps covering a wide geographical spread of countries.

Francois Fournier

Fournier was born in 1846 in Switzerland but later took French nationality. After the Franco-Prussian war in which he saw service he moved back to Switzerland and settled in Geneva, where in 1903 he was advertising facsimile reproductions of a wide range of Swiss and other obsolete postage stamps. In 1904 he purchased the stock of a fellow and technically more competent forger, Henri Mercier, also resident in Geneva.
During the next ten years the range and volume of his business expanded considerably and by 1914 his catalogue offered no fewer than 3671 different forgeries. Some of these were his own work but a goodly proportion, including the Suez Canal stamps were the work of others.
Following his death in 1917, his business was carried on by Charles Hirschburger with only limited success and following his death in 1927 the whole of the remaining stock amounting to some 800 pounds weight (over 1/3 ton) of forgeries was purchased by the Union Philatelique de Genève from Hirschburger’s widow to prevent it falling into the wrong hands. A small representative portion was retained for reference purposes and the remainder destroyed.

Engelhardt Fohl

Englehardt Fohl is now known to be the forger responsible for the Suez Canal stamps offered for sale by Fournier. Born in Dresden in 1858, he was, as early as 1871, offering as genuine his forgeries of the stamps of Moldavia, combining this activity with running the local mortuary.
He moved to Gera in 1894 where he continued his forgery activities until 1898 when the printing firm who he had employed to do the actual printing went bankrupt and a large quantity of his forgeries that were in process at the time were seized by the public prosecutor, thus bringing to light the true range and extent of his activities.


Kamigata was a stamp dealer in Tokyo (Japan). According to ‘Philatelic Forgers, their Lives and Works’ by V.E. Tyler, Kamigata sold forged stamps from Japan, China, Shanghai, Taiwan, Korea and many other countries.
They were actually made by Maeda Kihei. His forgeries, printed and distributed by the Kamigataya firm, are known as “Kamigata forgeries.”

A Saatjian

Not a lot is known about Saatjian except that he was an Armenian dealer in novelties living in Paris in the early 1900’s. He had first become interested in stamps during a visit to Persia in 1903, where he acquired a large quantity of the 1894 issue of that country which, with the tacit approval of the authorities, he then proceeded to surcharge so as to produce a whole series of new stamps. A few of these saw postal use, probably with the connivance of the authorities, but the majority were offered to collectors from his Paris address.
The financial success of this venture prompted him to bid for the 40 cent printing stone of the Suez Canal stamps, which he obtained for 80 Francs at the auction of the effects of Erard Leroy d’Etiolles in 1907. The Parisian stamp dealer, Erard d’Etiolles acquired the stone in an unknown fashion although it is probably significant that he had an office near the headquarters of the Suez Canal Company. Saatjian was able to modify transfers from this stone by erasing the 40 from the value circles in each corner of the stamp replacing these by 1,5,or 20 as appropriate and so build up a new set of stones from which to print his forgeries. The 40cent stone he used as purchased.
For the record he took eight impressions from each modified transfer onto an intermediate stone, which he then transferred 15 times, to build up his printing stone of 120 subjects. There are thus eight sub-types of each of the 1c, 5c and 20c forgeries but only four sub types of the 40 c value.

The General Characteristics of the Genuine Stamps (copy certified by APS) 

1. The appendage on each side of the upper circles containing the figures of value are well drawn and generally clear except for a dot or stroke which appears in the ball at the extremity.
1A. The tops of the A’s are pointed.
2. The flags (2) are pointed, relatively the same size and unshaded.
2A. On many stamps there are very few clouds in the sky but specimens exist on which the clouds are quite distinct.
3. The colors vary considerably and are NOT a means of identification but the ink used always presents a mat appearance. The 1c varies from intense black to pale grey black. The 5c varies from a yellowish green to pale green, almost a light emerald. The 20c varies a great deal and can be found from almost Prussian blue to pale dull blue. The 40c exists in carmine ranging to dull vermilion.
3 A. The top serifs of I ME almost touch.
4. The ship clearly shows one passenger in the bow, two between the fore and main masts and one behind the mainmast.
4 A. Behind the funnel, just to the right of the point where the rigging joins the deck, there is a spot of colon that might represent a passenger. At the stern of the ship to the left of the rear mast there are two spots of colon that could again represent passengers.
5. The comma like ornaments in the lower right and lower left shoulders just below the center line of the frame are separated from the floral appendage. The right comma is smaller than that on the left and neither are shaded.
5 A. The stars have 12 rays.
6. The space between the plaque and the circle frame is composed of a cross hatching. If it doesn’t pass this, it’s a forgery.
7. The last S of POSTERS is almost invariably somewhat flattened at the left of the bend.
8. The funnel of the ship is always heavily shaded, Inclined to the left, sometimes solid at the left with the right-hand portion made up of vertical lines of shading. The only horizontal line appearing on the funnel is a band about half a millimeter extending from the top to the right. Occasionally the funnel is a solid mass of colon.
9. The smoke from the funnel does not touch the frame line or approach within more than half a millimeter of it. In the majority of specimens the smoke ends one and a half millimeters or more away from the frame. Note also that it obscures the rear mast.
10. The background lines are thin and evenly spaced.

The value holders have the following characteristics;
C1. Left outline falls between first and second vertical lines of shading
C2. Touches first vertical line of shading.
C3. Touches first vertical line of shading.
C4. Just cuts through third vertical line of shading.
The gum varies in colon and almost without exception is cracked.

Color variations of the 20c 


The Plate Characteristics of the 1c, 5c and 40c
These features can be very difficult to determine unless you have a decent specimen on hand and a good magnifier or scanning availability. It is not hard to determine forgeries for the 1c, 5c and 40c issues. There are four types of plate expressions for each of these values. If the stamp does not meet one of the four types, then it can be considered a forgery. When it comes to the 20c stamp, there are 120 plate varieties and a meticulous set of parameters is necessary to determine if it is genuine. 

Genuine Type A

Genuine Type A

The Forgeries
In the case of the Suez Canal Company’s stamps a large number of different forgeries are known. This issue is most certainly one of the most extensively forged sets of postage stamps.

In almost every case the forgeries can readily be detected by examining the space between the oval containing the words DE SUEZ and the panel with the inscription POSTES. In the genuine stamps this space is filled with cross-hatching, whereas in the forgeries it is usually filled with vertical shading lines or completely shaded out.

An exception to this rule occurs with the Saatjian forgeries, where the space is filled with cross-hatching. Saatjian produced sheets of 120 of the 40c value by printing directly from the original lithograph stone used to print the authentic stamps. For the other values he took intermediate transfers from this stone, altered the values in the corners and then made separate new stones, each of 120 stamps for the 1c, 5c and 20c.

Since these Saatjian products exhibit many of the characteristics of the genuine stamps they are particularly difficult to pick out. However in making the new stones, enough variations were introduced to allow for identification. There are by all accounts at least 20 different forgery groups many of which the forger is not identified.

Spiro Forgeries
Size: 25 x 20 mm
Sheets: 25 (5 x 5) stamps
Paper: Thin woven, white to yellowish

1. One passenger in the bow, two behind the next mast, one in the stern between the funnel and mizzenmast.
2. There are three dashes below each star.
3. The lower value tablets are not as rounded.
4. Mizzen mast completely visible through the smoke.
5. Right hand comma is very small with a long tail.
6. The funnel has noticeable vertical shading lines.
7. The smoke is lightly outlined, almost touching the oval.
8. U in SUEZ is square at bottom and the top serifs are joined.
9. No cross-hatching but vertical lines
10. The serifs at the top are joined in IME.
11. There is a dash of color joining the left leg of the first M with the center one.
12.The foot of R in MARITIME is flat and joined to the I.
13.The far left & right end ornaments of the bottom values are completely different
Cl., C2. Touches second line of vertical shading.
C3. Touches first line of vertical shading.
C4. Touches third line of vertical shading

The last one appeared on eBay for $1 described as genuine and received 25bids

Below, another very similar to the Spiro;There is a protuberance at the bottom of the left-hand floral appendage just above the value tablet. There is an oblique dash through the ships bowsprit.

Fournier Forgery
These are described as first and second choice forgeries. I do not have further information.
The waves in his first choice (20c) are considered more realistic than the originals
They have guide lines between the stamps not found on the genuine.
The smoke is behind the mizzen mast

Kamigata Forgeries
Made by the forger Kamigata of Japan.
All four values were forged by Kamigata. These forgeries are generally not attributed to any forger. According to my research, this article describes these in detail for the first time. Read more:
Size: 24 x 19 mm
Paper: White and pale brown-yellow

1. No passengers are visible on deck.
2. The smoke from funnel broad and sausage shaped, thickly outlined and touching oval
3. .The right comma is longer and thinner than the left, both forming an integral part of the floral appendages.
4. The AN and AL of CANAL are joined at the bottom.
5. The MAR of MARITIME are joined at the bottom and the first M is very wide, the T has exceptionally long serifs.

The 5c & 20c
1. The T has a thick base.
2. The funnel has horizontal lines with a white band at the top.
3. The boom of the mizzenmast extends beyond the supporting ropes and through the smoke.
4. The ropes are heavily shaded.
C1, C2, C4. Touches second line of vertical shading.
C2. Touches first line of vertical shading.

A. Five concentric circles.
B. Concentric circles with PORT-SAID at top and Arabic inscription at bottom; date within inner circle.
C. Four small concentric circles surrounded by a large circle with inscription IMITATION; in two sizes (shown below).

Englehardt Fohl Forgery
Size: 25.5 x 20 mm, dividing lines between stamps
Sheet: 100 in two panes of 50 (5 x 10)
Paper: Slightly yellowish with clear gum

Common characteristics
1. Funnel shaded with vertical and horizontal lines
2. All of the A’s have flat tops.
3. Top bar of Z in SUEZ is extended to the right.
4. Small pennant on foremast, large on mainmast.

1c Black
1. No passengers in bow one in stern.
2. Heavy smoke almost touching oval.
3. Both commas attached to floral appendage, left is longer and thinner than the one on the right.
4. Four dashes below the left star, 5 below the right star.
Cl. C3, Touches second line of vertical shading.
C2.Touches first line of vertical shading.
C4.Touches third line of vertical shading

Type 4 top, Type 5 bottom

There are 5 transfer types for the 1c
1. There is a weak top of S in SUEZ; top of the solid triangle over the M is broken on the left.
2. Short T in POSTES and E is defective.
3. Two small dots between DE and SUEZ.
4. Dash across the oval under first leg of A in CANAL
5. The U in SUEZ is defective.

 5C Pale to Yellow Green
1. There are no passengers in bow and one in stern.
2. The smoke touches the oval frame.
3. There are three dashes below each star.
4. Both commas have long thin tails attached to the floral appendages
C1, C4.Touches the third line of vertical shading.
C2. Touches the first line of vertical shading.
C3. Touches the second line of vertical shading

Type 5 left, right type 5 with forged cancel

There are 5 Transfer Types for the 5c
1. Two background lines broken in the NW corner.
2. Wave broken above D of DE.right
3. Solid triangle over the M blotched and frame on the right is defective.
4. Centre stroke of E in DE extended to the left.
5. Dot in white oval under the second leg of the first M.

20c, Blue to steel blue
1. There is one passenger in the bow, two in the stern.
2. The boom of the mizzenmast extends beyond sail.
3. The support rope is missing at top left of the foremast.
4. There are two dashes below the right star, three below left.
5. The right comma is short and curled, left has thicker tail, both attached but not merged with floral appendage.
C1. , C2. , C3. , Touches second line of vertical shading
C4. , Touches third line of vertical shading.

Type 5 left, Type 1 right

Possibly a Type 3

There are 5 Transfer Type s for the 20c
1. One passenger in the bow, none in the stern. Smoke stack is wide.
2. There is a broken line in the clouds extending from below L in CANAL to the top of the funnel, a dash in this type but distinct in the rest.
3. Dashes above deck on left of foremast rigging are indistinct.
4. There are three dots above the deck, left of the foremast rigging.
5. Dashes above the deck on the left of the foremast rigging. White flaw between top of right floral appendage and oval.

40c, Pink to red
1. The right-hand comma is missing.
2. Three dashes below each star.
C1, C2, C3. Touches second line of vertical shading.
C4. Touches fourth line of vertical shading

Left Type 5, Right Type Type 2

Right Type 3

There are 5 Transfer Types for the 40c:
1. There is a small third ray in left-hand star.
2. The right top bar of T in POSTES is short and there is a flaw in the background opposite the 40c in SE corner.
3. There is a break in the left floral appendage.
4. There is a long top serif in N.
5. The line above the MA is broken.

Saatjian Forgeries – the most dangerous forgeries

Sheets: 120 (12 X 10)
Paper: Most printed on white or tinted wove paper. Some on brown paper
Gum: Thin white non – cracked gum 

The 40c was printed directly from the original printing stone, the 1, 5 and 20c . were printed from new stones made from transfers taken from the 40c. As a result of this, the 1c, 5c and 20c will exhibit some of the plate characteristics of the 40c noted earlier as well as some of their own.

 1c Characteristics
1. The top of funnel is joined to rigging on right.
2. There is a line across the left lower appendage of NW in the value tablet
3. C of CANAL has a short broken tail.
4. There is a break in the left leg of first M in MARITIME above serif and the top right serif of this letter is missing.
5. There is a break in left leg of A in CANAL.

Left is a Type 3 1c with Type 1 40c characteristics, right a Type
4Note that I have circled the 2 plate characteristics of the genuine 40c.

Type 5, dot over left star

Plating characteristics

Type 1, None

Type 2 , Large dot after Z

Type 3, C3, thick ragged inner oval over lc

Type 4, Spot lower left end of POSTES label

Type 5, Spot over left star

Type 6, Spur on diagonal rigging

Type 7; Point in top and bottom of outer margins

Type 8; C2 two faint spots to left of l c.

 5c Characteristics
1. Pale green , green to olive green.
2. C of CANAL has tail missing.
3. Break in cross bar of N in CANAL
4. Line across left lower appendage of NW value tablet.
5. Vertical rigging to right of funnel has break near top .
6. Inner line of SW value tablet has break opposite C .

Above is a Type 4 5c with Type 1 40c characteristics
Note that I have circled the 2 plate characteristics of the genuine 40c.

Plating characteristics

Type 1, White dash before P of POSTES

Type 2, Spot over P of POSTES label.

Type 3, Faint nick in vertical outer frame immediately above lower right corner.

Type 4, White comma before P of POSTES.

Type 5, None

Type 6, Faint dash below C3 beyond frame

Type 7, Bump on outer oval between C and left star.

Type 8, None 
20c Characteristics 

Above is a Type 1 20c with Type 1 40c characteristics
Note that I have circled the 2 plate characteristics of the genuine 40c.Type 1,Line across vertical of T in POSTES
2. Break in top bar of E in SUEZ.
3. Break in diagonal rigging on right of rear mast. Projection from left above 2 in Cl.

Type 2,
1. T of POSTES has a nick , bottom left. N of CANAL has slight crooked diagonal.
2. Break in down stroke of 2 in C1 value tablet.
3. Second M or MARITIME has break in left leg above bottom serif

Type 3
1. C of CANAL appears to have longer serif.
2. Dot below ball of 2 in C1 value tablet .
3. Breaks in inner frame above 20c in C4.
4. A in MARITIME blind; spot top right of T.
5. Left serif of second M touches the frame

Type 4,
1. Left lower serif of N in CANAL detached
2. 2 o’clock ray missing in right-hand star.
3. White patch in hull of ship.
4. Frame break below 2 and dot left of stop, Cl

40c Characteristics 

Type 1
1. Gap in top left top bar of T in MARITIME.
2. Vertical of T in POSTES too long.
3. Lines across left-hand appendage in C1.

Type 2,
1. Dash and dot before C in CANAL.
2. Spot in foresail above and below bowsprit.
3. E of SUEZ touches oval at top right.
4. Spot in S and T of POSTES.

Type 3
1. Spot between E of MARITIME and right star.
2. Nick in vertical and top of D in DE.
3. Nick in top outer frame line above A in MARITIME.
4. Break in diagonal rigging to near mast.
5. Nick in vertical of P in POSTES and line across T.

Type 4
1. Spot to right of center bar of E of SUEZ
2. C2 spot top right of 4; spot right of 0.
3. C3 colored dot in frame below 4.
4. C4 4 and 0 joined by line

The following are quite possibly Saatjian forgeries. The full plate indicates that there is an instance where the right star shows a defect of the ray at 2 O’clock (same as 20c Type 4).
If not then it is an unknown forgery.

Unknown Forger 1
Size: 25 x 19.5 mm
Sheet: 6 (3 x 2) stamps
Paper: White slightly glazed, called “Art Paper” forgery
All values forged.

1. There is no shading under  POSTES.
2. Almost no fore-deck without passengers; 4 passengers in stern.
3. Right-hand comma has a very thin tail extending to the floral appendage
4. Left comma indistinct.
5. Small pennant on mizzenmast.
5. Mizzen mast is too near the stern of ship.
6. One dash below and joining the left star, two below right the star.
7. Small figures of value at top & bottom
8. .Pennant on foremast is too large and slopes upward.
9. The Z in SUEZ smaller than other letters.
10. Right-hand leg of A in MARITIME is very thick and the second I is smaller than the other letters.
C1, C2.Touches second line of vertical shading.
C3, C4.Touches third line of vertical shading.

Numerals 322, 335, 527, 608 and 1916 struck in black

Unknown Forger 2
Size: 24.5 x 19.5 mm
Sheet: 120 (12 x 10) stamps
Paper: White, pale yellowish or brown
All values forged.

1. There is one passenger in the bow and two in the stern.
2. The stern is curved.
3. The top of letters A are flat instead of pointed.
4. There are breaks in lower parts of top value tablets
5. The smoke heavily outlined and touching the oval.
6. The funnel shaded with horizontal and vertical lines and a defined top.
7. The 5, 20 and 40c value tablets have partial double outlines
8. The comas and florals all in one piece.
9. Three dashes below left star, two below right star.
10. Wavy pennants on the foremast and mainmast.
11. Wide U in SUEZ
C 1. Cut second line of vertical shading.
C2. , C4. , Touches first line of vertical shading
C3. , Touches second line of vertical shading. Early impressions were very clear while later ones are blurred.

A. Diamond of small dots.
B. Diamond of large dots.
C. Circle with Arabic characters and C in center, 19.5 mm diameter.
D. Small circle with Arabic characters in center.
E. Large double line circle with ENTREPRISE GENERALE DES TRAVAUX within band and CANAL/DE/SUEZ in center.
F. Double circle with COMPAGNIE DE CANAL SUEZ and ISMAILIA known used on cover.

Unknown Forger 3
Size: 25 x 20 mm, Framed by lines
Paper: White wove or slightly yellowish
All the values forged.

1. There are two passengers in the bow, one in the stern.
2. The smoke is heavy, low, almost touching the oval.
3. The stern is nearly straight.
4. There is a long thin pennant on the foremast.
5. The left comma has long tail with vertical shading lines crossing it and is attached to the floral appendage.
6. The right comma is small with short tail, not attached.
7. The funnel is wide with vertical shading.
8. The feet of R and I in MARITIME are joined.
9. The bottom of EZ of SUEZ is joined.
10.The C of CANAL is very narrow with prominent top serif and it touches the oval frame above.
11. There are four dashes below left star, three below the right star.
Cl. C2. Touches first line of vertical shading.
C3. C4. Touches second line of vertical shading.

Unknown Forger 4
Size: 25 x 20.5 mm
Sheet: 36 (6 x 6) stamps
Paper: Very white paper

1. There are noticeable dividing lines separating the stamps.
2. Only the 1c is known.
3. There is no passenger in the bow and one in the stern.
4. A very small pennant on the mainmast similar to the pennant on the mizzenmast.
5. The funnel has a fine vertical shading with thicker horizontal shading.
6. The first A in CANAL has a flat top; the tops of the other A’s are pointed.
7. The left comma has a large head and is attached to the floral appendage; the right comma has a thin tail and is not attached.
8. The supporting rope is missing from top the left of the foremast.
9. No dash below the left star; three dashes below the right star.
10. Part of the foremast is missing between the furled sail and deck.
Cl. Touches third line of vertical shading.
C2. Touches second line of vertical shading.
C3. Touches third line of vertical shading.
C4. Touches second line of vertical shading.

SUEZ in rectangular frame.

Representative image

Unknown Forger 5
Size: 24 x 19.5 mm
Paper: Pale yellow to yellowish brown and white
All the values forged.

1. There are no passengers visible on deck.
2. The pennant is missing from the foremast.
3. The vertical lines are well separated. The top values are small.
4. The smoke broad, outlined with dots, and just touches the oval, it does not obscure part of mizzenmast.
5. The funnel has vertical shading lines with a white band at the top and it is short and stumpy.
6. The right comma is long and thick; both commas are connected to the floral appendage.
7. Right leg of the R in MARITIME has a flat foot.
8. The second M in MARITIME is wider than the first.
9. The lower loop of the S in SUEZ is very long.
10.The boom of the mizzenmast extends well beyond the supporting ropes.
C1. C2. Touches first line of vertical shading.
C3. Touches second line of vertical shading.
C4. Falls between first and second line of shading.

Unknown Forger 6
Size: 25 x 20.5 mm, lines around the stamp
Paper: White to faint yellowish

1. There is no deck between the rigging and bowsprit.
2. There are three passengers in the stern and one in the bow.
3. There are 15 rays in the right star, 14 in the left
4. The funnel is blurred with vertical shading.
5. There are wide forked pennants on all three masts.
6. The smoke is heavy, slanting upward with a pointed tip.
7. The right comma is short and curled and attached to the floral appendage.
8. The left comma is smaller with a thin line across the tail.
9. All letters A have flat tops instead of pointed and are generally wide.
10. The filigree below the stars bear no resemblance to the originals.

C1. C2. Touches first line of vertical shading.
C3. Touches second line of vertical shading.
C4. Touches third line of vertical shading.
A bogus 10c value in black apparently exists.

Unknown Forger 7
Size: 25 x 20.5 mm, lines around stamp
Paper: Thin white written COUNTERFEIT on back

1. Background shading lines pass through the stars and floral appendages and part of the oval band containing inscription.
2. There are pennants on all three masts.
3. There is a Scar through the bottom two ropes in front of foremast and another below smoke in front of mizzenmast.
4. Individual frame around each stamp.
5. No foredeck; three passengers in the stern.
6. There are fifteen rays in each star.
7. The smoke from the funnel is heavy, just extending through mizzenmast.
8. Top of letters in SUEZ connected by a thin line.
9. Flat tops of A’s.
10. Top left serif of the first M in MARITIME extends by a long thin line.
11. There are no dashes below either star, left star is connected to the filigree beneath it.
C1. C2. Touches first line of vertical shading.
C3.Touches second line of vertical shading.
C4.Touches third line of vertical shading.

Unknown Forger 8
Size: 24 x 19 mm
Paper: White

This is possibly a copy of a forgery.
1. The smoke, is very heavy and curls down touching the oval.
2. Overall a crude heavy impression.
3. The lettering badly formed; E in MARITIME is much smaller than the other letters.
4. The DE SUEZ and POSTES bands touch.
5. The background lines of shading are coarse and uneven.
6. The 5c and 40c value tablets have a crude double inner circle. Right star is crude and indistinct.
7. There is a leaf below the left star and nothing below right star.
8. Left and right comma are the wrong shape and form part of the floral appendages.

Unknown Forger 9
Size: 24.25 x 19.5 mm
Paper: Coarse white wove
All values forged

1. The vertical shading lines are coarse and heavy.
2. The stern is curved.
3. The upper left value tablet is oval shaped.
4. Smoke from funnel is coarse as well as the sky shading.
5. A large comma on the left and a very thin comma on the right both attached to the floral appendage.
6. The rigging is coarse and very heavy.
7. The right-hand star is very crude.
8. Pointed wavy pennants on the foremast and mainmast.
9. Top values much smaller.
10.The letters in bands are very coarse.
11. The first S in POSTES is malformed and the P has a small loop
12. In CANAL, the letters ANAL are all connected at the bottom.
13.The Z is larger than the other letters.
14. The letters in MARITIME are joined together, except I.
15. The E in MARITIME is very small.
C1.C2.C4., Touches the first line.
C3. Touches the second line.

Unknown Forger 10
Size: 25.25 x 20 mm
Paper: White, yellowish and brownish yellow
All values forged.

1. Dot in D of DE , a main characteristic of these.
2. Blotchy print.
3. One passenger in the bow, one in the stern.
4. Left comma small , clear of floral appendage.
5. Right-hand comma indistinct , a small white blob.
6. Break in top bar of E in MARITIME.
7. Dot above center ray of left-hand star.
8. The top of C in CANAL touches oval frame.
9. Break in oval above E of SUEZ and the oval frame under this word is broken.
10. Top of mizzenmast broken and almost missing and smoke in front of mast
The 20c value has solid numerals and lacks the c.
Cl. C3. Touches second line of vertical shading.
C2. Touches first line of vertical shading.
C4. Touches third line of vertical shading.

A. Seven horizontal bars.
B. APRES/ DEPART in rectangular frame.
C. Radiating spokes in circle
D. Lozenge of dots

Broadway Approvals
Sheet: 59.5 x 59 mm
Size Stamps: 25 x 20.25 mm
Paper: cream colored
Issued close to the original colors.
This miniature sheet was a gift to clients of the stamp dealer Broadway Approvals during the 1950s and 1960s.
It was suggested that the sheet could be mounted as such in the album or divided and the stamps mounted singly.
Each stamp was marked ‘Facsimile’ on the back which of course could easily be removed.

Singles from the sheet
Note the dot after the DE in all three.
Also a small dot between the scroll and the DE.
Another dot in the oval below the second I of MARITIME
These were offered on eBay as genuine

Unidentified Forgeries
The following I have not been able to identify and may represent unknown forgeries.

Extremely crude on the left “sinking ship”

Left broken rigging, large oblique angle on C2 value, right odd shaped C2

This one is very similar to the genuine but the smoke has a definite contour and the main flag curves downwards and the front one upwards

Very crude letters, especially the MARITIME (very wide crooked M), smoke in the shape of a tube, cancel forged

C4 very large numerals, thick lettering, smudged appearance.