1854

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January 1 1854 Issue
Designed by José Pérez Vareta. Printed in typography in the National Stamp Factory.
Size 20 x 24mm. Sheets of 170 stamps imperforated. Shade varieties exist for all stamps.
Consist of 4 values in the following quantities;
6c – 13,930,183
2r – 78,210
5r – 54,827
6r – 15,394

Genuine Characteristics


1. Foot of 1 is longer on the right side
2. Dent in the chain link
3. Lines do not touch the edge of the shield
4. Dot in chain, other links have them also
5. Dent in the chain link
6. Right leg of N is slightly inclined
7. Leaf is detached
8. Several breaks in the line
9. White dot in center
These apply to the 4 stamps in this issue

6c forgeries compared to the original


Fournier forgery
Overall lack of detail
1. Spaces in “CORRE O S”
2. Large 5 in 1854
3. Center emblem is narrow
4. Dot under small S in CS is small


Spiro forgery
Overall very crude
Features inside shield do not match original
Letters and numbers are irregular


Segui
Printed by typography on thin yellow paper.
1. The 1 is thick .
2. The head of 5 not as curved and thicker.
3. There are breaks in the lower chain ornament
4. The leaf blade in the upper right corner is short and not curved.
5. The cross is smaller.
6. The crown of the top right lion is different.
7. No white dots as in #9 of genuine


Type I forgery
Printed by typography on thick white paper. The size of this forgery
It is smaller than the original
1. A colored frame surrounds the stamp design.
2. Lions have large uppers
3. No white dots as in #9 of genuine
4. Letters and numbers are thin

2r forgeries compared to the original


Segui Forgery
Printed by typography on thin yellow paper.
1 1 in 1854 is thick
2 Letters too thick especially CORREOS
3 The blade in the upper right corner is short and not curved.
4 The curve of the right scroll is somewhat angular.
5. Pearls in the crown are too small


Type II forgery
Printed by lithography on thick white paper.
1 Wrong top inscription,
2 The design of the lions is crude.
3 It lacks elements in the central oval.
4 The 2 is very large


Type IV forgery
Printed by lithography on medium white paper. Very crude design.
1 Letter C, O and S are very separate.
2 The head of the figure 5 is a thick line.
3 The lion of the lower quarter has no crown.
4 Lower inscription has tall and narrow letters.
5 2 is stylized and inclined.


Type V forgery
Printed by lithography on thin white paper
Decent forgery
1 1854 is large and numbers close together
2 There are missing lines in the castle sections
3 2 slightly inclined to the right.
4 Letter R thick and flat.


Type VI forgery
Printed by typography.
1. Leaves are larger
2. Number 5 has a very small head.
3. Shading lines in the scroll tops are missing
4. Number 2 is elongated.

5r forgeries compared to the original


Fournier forgery
1. Letters are thinner.
2. Serif of 1 is short
3. Lines of shadow of the scrolls of the left especially short.
4. Cross is thicker


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thin yellow paper.
1. The 1 is thick .
2. The head of 5 not as curved and thicker.
3. There are breaks in the lower chain ornament
4. The leaf blade in the upper right corner is short and not curved.
5. The cross is smaller.
6. The crown of the top right lion is different.


Sperati forgery
1. Dot on lower C, D and 5
2. Dot below the lower right castle.
3. The top 5 has a pointed end
4. A small break or weakening in the line above the top 5
5. Leaves are thicker and shaped differently
6. Small break on the left side of the second O of CORREOS


Zechmeyer forgery
Printed by medium paper. The color is intense green.
1 Top letters crude and joined
2 The crown has a very wide base.
3 Lions very different
4 The point is below O instead of DO
5. Lower 5 is inclined
6. The small S is oddly shaped


Type II forgery
Printed by lithography.
1. In CORREOS, the letters C, O and S are very separate.
2. Lower inscription has narrow malformed letters.
3. The top of the figure 5 is a thick line.
4. The lion of the lower left quarter has no crown.
5. The leaves and ornaments are small ans very thin


Type IV forgery
Printed by lithography on thin gray paper.
1. The number 8 has the upper oval smaller than the lower oval.
2. The 5 tops are short.
3. The right foot of the lower R is elongated.
4. The leaves of the branches of the upper adornments have different orientations than in the  genuine
5. The CRE in CORREOS are taller than the other letters


Type V forgery
Printed by lithography on thin white paper.
1. The serif of the figure 1 is short.
2. Small flat D in DO
3. The letter R in the value is thick.
4. The figure 5 is wide.
5. The C of CERT is lower
6. Bottom letters are thin
There are missing lines in the background of the castles.


Type VII forgery
Printing by typesetting. Found in black also
1. Top of the figure 1 is short.
2. Number 5 in 1854 has a very small head.
3. The head of E in CERT is somewhat wider than the base.
4. Head of 5 in value has a slightly short stroke.
5. Background lines in shield are lacking

6r forgeries compared to the original


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thin yellow paper.
1. The 1 is thick .
2. The head of 5 not as curved and thicker.
3. There are breaks in the lower chain ornament
4. The leaf blade in the upper right corner is short and not curved.
5. The cross is smaller.
6. The crown of the top right lion is different.


Fournier forgery
Printed by typography on  medium paper.
1 The top inscription has thick and uneven type
2 The shadow lines in the scrolls in the left area are short and thick.
3 Vertical lines inside the castles quarters are very thick.
4 Number 6 is elongated.


Sperati forgery
1. The top right of the 8 has a color dot
2. The first R of CORREOS has white dots
3. The 1 is wide at the base and there is a small color dot attached on the right
4. The base of the 4 is small


Type I forgery
Printed by lithography on thick  paper.
1. In the upper inscription the points are missing after CORREOS and 1854.
2. The drawing of the lions is very crude
3. In the lower inscription the points below DO and S are missing.
4. The leaves are very different
5. Large cross


Type III forgery
Printed by lithograph on thin paper.
1. Top inscription has slightly thin letters and figures.
2. Lines are missing in the bottom of the castles.
3. Lions with very large heads.
4. Bottom of the C in CERT is flat


Type VII forgery – printed in black (Bobes ?)
1 . The 5 has a small top
2. Break to the left in the upper castle
3 . The central tower the lower castle is open.
4. Many leaves have no inner vein


Unlisted forgery
An excellent forgery that would easily pass
1. There are several breaks in the chain
2. The shape of the lions has minor differences
3. Breaks in the crown
4. The small S is slightly thicker

Issue of November 1, 1854
The issue of 3 values was engraved by D. José Pampas and they were printed in typography by the National Factory of Timbre in plates of 170 stamps per sheet. Thin white and bluish paper exist.
Quantities printed;
2c – 104,889
4c – 8,230,967
1r – 55,083

We can find very specific color and die variations as shown below

  

 

 

 

Genuine Characteristics
These apply to all the stamps in the series


1. Note shape of jewels in the crown band
2. The ends of the vertical and horizontal lines do not touch the outside frame
3. 2 distinct lines in the scroll
4. Several of these sections have dots in them
5. Break in the chain
6. Dent in the chain
7. Broken line
8. Right leg slants inwards slightly
9. Break in frame
10. Left end of the frame dips downwards
11. Large white space in the castle section
12. Break in frame
13. Color blotch here
14. Break in scroll
15. Vertical lines do not touch the upper frame
16. Element has a break

2c forgeries compared to the original


Facsimile forgery
Printed by lithography in black on yellowed cardboard paper.
Original purpose unknown
1. Top inscription has distorted letters. The E is slanted
2. The cross lacks the top section.
3. The separation gap of the scrolls is V-shaped.
4. The corner ornaments lack the central arm.
5. The point after the number 2 is missing.


Fournier forgery
Printed by lithography on medium  paper
1. The curve of the right oval in the left set is formed by a
dash line.
2. The small S is slanted
3. Letter O of FRANCO is higher
4. Large space between the FR and AN of FRANCO


Segui Forgery
Printed by typography on white or yellowish paper, medium or thin.
1. Second O of CORREOS is smaller than the other letters
2. The lower right pearl of the crown is open.
3. The crown of the upper lion is almost nonexistent.
4. The top left scroll is not broken
5. The right leg of the N is tilted
6. The central horizontal bar touches the frame
7. The white dots in the chain links are missing

4c forgeries compared to the original


Fournier Type I forgery – black image from Fournier listing|
1. The curve of the top left scroll is made of dots
2. The letter C of FRANCO is thin on the bottom
3. The 4 has a curve in the horizontal line
4. The oblique lines in the large top scrolls are very heavy


Segui Type II forgery
Printed by typography on medium or thin white paper. A very good forgery
1. The four pearls of the corner ornaments are small.
2. Broken left scroll of the left set, as in originals which differentiates it from the Segui Type I
3. The 5 has a  small head
4. There is no point in the third ring on the right.
5. The bottom line has no breakage.
6. The pearls in the crown are indistinct


Type I forgery
Printed by lithography on white or bluish paper.
1. The figure 1 lacks the top serif
2. The tip of the upper left ornament is very wide.
3. The top right ornament touches the top line.
4. The right scroll is incomplete.
5. The lower ornaments rest on the frame line.
6. Lacks the point after the number 4.
7. Lower letters are uneven


Type III forgery
Printed by lithography on medium gray paper. Very bad design.
1. Lacks the point after CORREOS.
2. The base of the crown is very narrow
3. The lower lion looks lacks a crown.
4. The left base of the shield does not rest on the frame line.
5 .The upper left and lower right trim touches the frame lines.


Type V forgery
1. The first R of CORREOS is large and the S is shaped oddly
2. The 1 is inclined as is the base of the 5
3. Large cross
4. Large heads on the lions
5. The lower thin frame line is straight with no breaks


Unlisted forgery I
1. The OR of CORREOS is large and the O is low
2. The 5 is oddly shaped
3. Large heads on the lions
4. The cross has a tall top


Unlisted forgery II
1. The OR of CORREOS are close
2. The S is low
3. The 5 is short
4. The O of FRANCO is low
5. Lions have large heads
6. The cross is large


Unlisted forgery III in white or blue paper
1. The 4 of 1854 is inclined to the right.
2. C of CORREOS is more closed and the O is inclined.
3. The 1 has a thick base
4. The Cs is badly shaped
5. The lower thin frame line is straight with no breaks


Unlisted forgery IV
1. The O of CORREOS is inclined and the S is shaped oddly
2. Large heads on the lions
3. Top and lower letters are thin

1R forgeries compared to the original


Fournier  forgery
Printed by typography on medium paper.
1 The curve of the right oval in the left set is formed by a dotted line.
2 The links in the chain lack pointed spikes.
3 The background stripes of the castles’ cartridges are  thick and irregular lines.
4 Lower inscription has slightly misaligned letters.


Segui forgery Type II
Printed by typography on medium or thin white paper.
1. Broken left scroll of the left set, as in authentic seals. (This characteristic differentiates it from the False Segui Type I
2. Numeral 5 head is short and thick. The bottom opening is wider.
3. There is no point in the third chain link on the right.
4. The bottom line has no breakage.
5. The thin left frame line is not broken near the top.


Sperati Type II forgery – see below


1. White incision at the top on the left side of the vertical stick of the first letter “R” of “CORREOS”.
2. White spot in first R
3. Slight bulge in the upper right-hand side of the first “R” of “CORREOS”.
4. Color spot on the top left seal trim,
5. Small cut at the bottom of the first “O” of “CORREOS”.
6. Break of the right stroke at the base of the vertical stick of the first “R” of “CORREOS”.
7. Cut on the vertical pole of the “1” of “1854”.
8. Small bulge on the outside of the bottom circle of the “8”.
9. Dot of color between the “1” and the outer frame.
10. Break in the right stripe of the adornment.
11. Break of the left trace of the base of the vertical “R” bat of “FRANCO”.
12. White cut on top of that same letter “R”.
13. Break from the right side of the baseline of the right side of the letter “A”.
14. Cut on the right side of the oblique line of the “N”.
15. Breakage and irregularity at the top of the “C”.
16. Break at the bottom of the “O”.
17. Break on the right side of the “1” baseline.
18. Breakage of the inner frame to the right of the characteristic break of the original seal.
19. Ripple in the baseline of the “R” of “R L “.
20. Break in the upper horizontal line of that letter “R”.
21. Irregularity at the base of the ” L ” of “R L “.
22. Cut inside the frame line on the right.
23. The right side of the upper line of the ” L ” of “R L ” is shorter .


Type I forgery
Printed by lithography on white or bluish paper.
1. The numeral 1 has a short serif.
2. The 8 is slanted and the 5 has a thick top
3. The right scroll is incomplete.
4. The right lion looks like a dog
5. The last R is wide
6. The base of the crown is very narrow


Type III forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
1. letters C and O of CORREOS are larger than the other letterd
2. The figure 4  touches the dot.
3. Bottom letters are thin
5· The left hand of the lower lion almost touches the frame.
6. Small letter L is short.


Unlisted forgery – possibly Fournier?
An excellent forgery that easily fools
1. The end of the tail of the bottom lion is different
2. The breaks and dent in the chain on the right side are missing
3. The left top scroll is almost completely missing
4. The top of the 5 is not curved


Unlisted forgery II
Printed by typography on white medium paper. Very good forgery
1. The cupola of the upper right ornament is an oval.
2. It lacks the break in the small scroll of the left set.
3. No breaks in the lower thin frame line

Officials 1854
Quantities issued
½ onza, 678,000.
1 onza, 339.000.
4 onzas, 218.100.
1 libra, 117.000.

Forgeries compared to the original


Type I forgery
Overall a good forgery
Printed by lithography on thick yellow paper.
1. Letter C is  elongated.
2. Color point on the left curve of S.
3. The bottom of the figure 5 is wide.
4. Castle background lines are thick
5. Large cross on the crown
6. The right side of the M is taller


Type III forgery
Printed by lithography on thin yellow paper. Rather crude
1. No dot after CORREOS.
2. The top inner scroll ends are very different
3. The lower lion lacks a crown.
4. The bottom of the 8 is compressed.
5. 1854 uneven numbers


Type II forgery
Printed by lithography on thin yellow paper. Rather crude. Same forger as above
1. No dot after CORREOS.
2. The top inner scroll ends are very different
3. The lower lion lacks a crown.
4. The bottom of the 8 is compressed.
5. 1854 uneven numbers
6. The stars are irregular


Forgery Type I
Printed by lithography on medium green paper.
1. Upper inscription has tall letters.
2. 8 is wide as is the lower 5
3. Almost no dot after ONZAS
4. Lower inscription has thin letters


Forgery Type II
Printed by lithograph .  Very poor quality design.
1. It lacks the dot after CORREOS.
2 The scrolls curve the wrong way
3 The lower lion is crude and lacks a crown.
4 The left base of the shield does not rest on the frame line.
5. The base of the crown is very narrow
6. Top letters are distorted


Forgery Type IV
Printed by typography on medium paper.
1 . 8 is wide
2. The small scroll of the right group is almost circular.
3. The horizontal line separating the 4 quarters of the shield touches the frame line
4. Lower inscription has tall letters.
5. The letters of ONZAS are irregular


Forgery Type I
Printed by lithography on thick pink paper. It also exists on slightly bluish paper.
1. Upper inscription with elongated letters.
2. 85 is wide and the 1 is inclined
3. The dot after CORREOS is too high
4. Lower inscription has wide  letters.
5. The ovals inside the scrolls are shaped differently


Forgery Type II
Printed by lithography on thin  paper. Very poor design.
1. It lacks the dot after CORREOS.
2 The ovals inside the scrolls are shaped oddly
3 The lower lion  is crude and lacks a crown.
4 The left base of the shield does not rest on the frame line.


Forgery Type IV
Printed by typography on medium blue paper. As a photographic copy the quality is very good but in the process details are lost
1. Top letters have spots and thin spots
2. Break in left oval of the upper right scroll.
3. Notable breaks in the vertical lines of the castles
4. Lower letters also have irregularities

References
Introduccion al estudio y relacion de los sellos falsos postales de Espana – Francisco Graus
Michel Europe West 2012
Spain & Dependencies – Edifil.2009
Focus on Forgeries – Varro Tyler
Spain Specialized Vol.1 1850-1931 Edifil Tome 1

Catalogo dos Sellos De Espana – Antonio Duro
Seranne Guide to Forgeries
Torres Catalog 1879
Las falsificaciones del Sello Espanol – A. Monne 1965
SPAIN FORGERIES 1850 to 1925 by De Haene
FFE #7 FORGERIES SPAIN

Timbrex – H. Schloss
Forged Stamps of all Countries – Dorn
HANDBUCH DER BRIEFMARKENKUNDE HEFT 6: CARLISTISCHE POST – H. NEUES

Album Weeds – Earree
Tedesco Forgery Index
Handbok Fer Filatelister – S. Tullberg
Guia del coleccionista de sellos de Correos de España, 1850-54 – Tort
Many of the common auction sites that provided ample material