1853

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1853 Issues
Engraved by José Pérez Vare
Printed in typography at the National Stamp Factory.
Size 18.5 x 22.4 mm. Sheets of 170 stamps.
Postal validity until December 31, 1853.
Quantities issued;
6 cuartos, 12,768,942
12 cuartos, 151,799
2 reales, 3,875
5 reales, 67,550
6 reales, 13,900

Genuine Characteristics of the Series


1. Small break above CO – this may only be partial or invisible on some.
2. Central are has broken line.
3. Line is tilted upwards slightly.
4. Tiny dot at the end of nostril – not easily identified.
5. Line tilts downwards slightly.
6. Small S in the 6c and 12c is inclined
7. Lines visible in white space
8. White area tilts up.
9. Left end of white space protrudes slightly.
10. This pearl has a heavier frame.
11. Band thins here.


In the 5r & 6r we find the T slightly inclined to the right and the small O inclined to the left

1853 6c
The 6c can be found in distinct colors

There are many plate defects in the 6c and they are placed in 7 classes
Class 1. Defects in corners and frames.
Class 2. A1: Defects in the upper cartridge inscriptions.
                A2: Defects in the inscriptions of the lower cartridge.
Class 3. Defects in the lines of the box.
Class 4. Defects in the horizontal lines of the angles.
Class 5. Defects in white oval and pearls.
Class 6. Defects in the background.
Class 7. Defects in the effigy.

Comparison of genuine and forgeries 6c


Bobes forgery
1. Letters are thin
2. RAN letters joined
3. Trefoils on crown are pointed
4. Letters FRANCO increase in size left to right
5. Eye is very different


Forgery unlisted
Overall very crude
1. Facial features very different
2. Letters are thin and misshapen
3. Frame distorted


Forgery unlisted
Very crude
Eyes and nose wrong shape
No shading in the hair


Fournier forgery
Printed by typography on medium or thin white paper. Large variation in tints
1 Design of the C of CORREOS is rounded and thin.
2 Second R is tilted to the right.
3 The eye opening is small.
4 Letter O of FRANCO is slightly inclined.


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
1. Break in hairline
2. Narrow eyelid
3. Large pearl
4. AN is joined
5. Ear is well defined
6. Circle is complete


Spiro forgery
overall very crude with little resemblance to the original


Type II forgery
Printed by lithography on medium white paper. The postmark looks very contrived.
1. Width and height are smaller.
2. The band is unifor in width
3. Shading of the neck formed by lines instead of dots.
4. All the letters are not uniform


Type III forgery
A really bad forgery with no resemblance to the original


Type IV forgery
Very crude design printed by typography on white medium paper.
1. CORREOS with thin and tall letters.
2.  5  is very short
3. The last pearl in the lower left arch is missing.
4. Eye and nose wrong


Type V forgery
Printed by lithography on thick paper.
1 All the letters are short
2 Figures 5 and 3 touching the frame line.
3  The eyebrow is shaped like a half moon
4 The 6 & C are touching the line


Type VI forgery
Printed by lithography on thick yellow paper.
Rather poor forgery
1 Letter ‘C’ rounded and with narrow head.
2. RRE letters are joined
2 The 1853 figure formed with a progressively larger font
3 Large shading dots in the neck
4 Letters  RAN are joined by the base.
5 Figure 6 is tall and thin.


Type VII forgery
Printed by typography on white medium paper.
1. CORREOS with thin and tall letters.
2. The last pearl in the lower left arch is missing.
3 Last C touches the line
4 Crown band does not taper


Unlisted very rare forgery
Although a rather poor forgery, it is extremely rare and was listed for $2000 as a forgery
1. The last C is inclined
2. The pearls are small
3. Mouth line is thick
4. Eye lacks shading

Comparison of genuine and forgeries 12c


Crude forgery
Extremely crude  and rare
Nothing matches – almost looks hand-drawn


Fournier forgery
Printed by typography it is also found in red, blue and green
1 Figure 3 has a narrow head.
2 Hair lines are thick
3 Absence of the top serif of the R of FRANCO.
4 The base of the figure 2 is thick.
5 Small s is thick.
6. RE of CORREOS  is tall


Novella forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
Little is known of Novella who operated in Catalonia. His forgeries are extremely well done
1 the head of the 5 is slightly shorter.
2 Two white points, very defined, between the first and second flower, counting from the left, of the diadem.
3. The dot in the end of the nose is missing
4 Head of the last C is too curved
5. Less shading in the hair


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
1 Letter ‘S’ with the head slightly flattened.
2 The right side of the third flower, counting from the left, is closed.
3 The eyelid is narrow. ,
4 AN letters joined by the base.
5 The last whole pearl in the lower right area of the oval is large.


Sperati forgery
Printed by photographic methods. Details are minute and require careful examination.
1 Small bulge in the first R
2 The central E leg is curved.
3 Small white dot in second O of CORREOS
4 The lower figure 1 widens at the base.
5 The right frame is thins at the bottom.
6 Small bulge in the small s


Type I forgery from catalog
Printed by lithography on thick white paper.
1 O of FRANCO is inclined
2 Number ‘3’ ‘joined to’ 5 ‘.
3 There are only five florets in the diadem.
4 The shading of the hair of the head is totally irregular.
5 The letters RAN are joined.
6  Point below s is too far down.


Type II forgery
Printed by lithography on thick yellowish paper.
1 Letter C of CORREOS is rounded
2 Figure 1853 formed with progressively larger type
4 Dots in the neck are sparse and thick.
5 letters “RAN” joined by the base.
6 Number 1 has a sharp inclined top


Type V forgery
Printed by lithography on thin gray paper.
1 Letter C rounded.
2 The 3 has a large ball
3. Mouth is thick
4 The C of Cs is inclined and crude, the small s is shaped differently
5 RAN are joined together
6 The second O of CORREOS is large


Type VI forgery
Printed by lithography on thin white paper.
i Letter C of CORREOS is wide and inclined
2 Last flower of the crown is narrow in its center.
3 The right frame line is thick
4 Letter O of FRANCO slightly tilted to the right.
6 Cs has a very irregular design.


Type VII forgery
Dangerous modern forgery (Peter Winter?). Reproduced by photographic methods and printed by off-set.
1 Very definite break in the head of the S
2 White dots in the upper ear.
3 Very defined break at the base of Lower C.
4  The base of the small ‘s’ is straight.
5. Dot in the nose tip is missing
6. The 2 genuine trait lines in the large white space left below the ear are only partial


Type VIII forgery
Printed by typography on white medium paper.
1. Top inscription has tall letters.
2. Figure 5 has a small lower arch.
3. Lobe of the  ear is longer.
4. The last pearl is missing in the lower left arch,
5. FRANCO with thin, tall letters.
6. The last C is inclined

Comparison of genuine and forgeries 2r


Bobes blue forgery – Type XV
Printed by typography on medium white paper.
1 Upper inscription has high and thin letters
2 Figure 5 has a small lower arch.
3 Elongated earlobe
4 Missing last pearl in left lower arch.
5 Lower inscription with tall, thin letters.
6. Pointed shape of the crown florets.


Bobes black forgery
As above


Unlisted forgery
Excellent forgery
1. Oval frame line is thinner
2. Letters are slightly thinner
3. T of CERT noticeably inclined
4. Eye is slightly more open


Fournier forgery
Printed by type on medium or thin white paper.
1 Figure 3 is narrow at the top.
2 Break in the inner pearl of the central tres-foil
3. The lower inscription is slightly off-center downwards.
4. Letter o of DO is  small.


Novella forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
1 First O is rounded, especially the top.
2 The top of the figure 5 is slightly shorter.
3 Two very defined white dots between the first and second tres-foil counting from the left.
4 Top of  the C too curved.
5 The base of the number 2 is thick
6. More breaks on the top hair


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
1 Letter ‘S’ with the head slightly flattened.
2 The right side of the third flower, counting from the left, is closed.
3 The eyelid is narrow. ,
4 AN letters joined by the base.
5 The last whole pearl in the lower right area of the oval is large.


Sperati forgery
Reproduced by photographic methods from a genuine stamp. Details are usually very minor. It was certified as genuine.
1 Bulge in the upper left corner.
2 Small notches in the right frame of the upper letter frame.
3 Break in the curved line of the neck.
4 The pearl of the oval in front of the mouth is broken.
5 The left curve of the small s is thinned.
6 Notch on the head of the number 2.
7 Break at the base of T.
8 Small dot of color in E.


Sperati forgery 2


Torres forgery from catalog
Printed by lithography on thin gray paper.
Overall rather poor
1. Small upper inscription letters, highlighting the separation between RE and OS.
3. Chin is squared
4. The base of the figure 3  is almost straight.
5. Letter R of CERT is very wide
6. Letter R of Rs is very irregular.


Type III forgery
Printed by lithography on yellowish thick paper
1 Letter C is rounded, especially the base.
2 Letter S is rounded at the head.
3 Number 1 top is oblique
4 The 5 top is tilted.
5 Figure 3 has a very long top.
6 Lower inscription, the DO is short, 2 is misshapen, the R is very wide and the s is short and touches the frame which is not closed at the top


Type IV forgery
Printed by typography on thick white paper
1 Top of the 5 is a thick rectangular stroke.
2 Figure 3 lack central section.
3 No top frame to the band
4 Small o is round.
5 Figure 2 touches the frames.
6 Large blunt nose


Type VI forgery
Printed by lithography on thin white paper.
Overall not very good
1 CO letters tilted to the right.
2 Top numbers are tall
3 Big ear.
4 Chin not rounded.
5 Number 2 is narrow.
6 Small s is very wide.


Type VIII forgery
Printed by typography on white medium paper.
Rather poor copy
1. First  O is leaning to the right.
2. The two RR very different from each other
3. Number 8 is wide and tall.
4. The 5 has a very short top
5 Letter E of CERT is very wide.
6. Small S  has a very wide base


Type IX forgery
Reproduced by photographic methods and printed by lithography.
An extremely good forgery that can easily fool any collector
1 Head of figure 3 slightly shorter, with the thin end and very slightly curved.
2 The downward line of the mouth is short
3 The slope of the nose is different
4 The base of figure 2 is thick and short.


Type X forgery
Printed by lithography on thin white paper.
Overall quite good
1 The head of the S is slightly short.
2 The 8 is wide inside.3. White space at the rear of the band.
3 The D of DO is inclined
4 The chin is not as rounded


Type XI forgery
Printing by lithography on thin white paper.
Overall reasonably good
1 Deformed figure 1
2 Figure 3 with the base formed by an almost straight line.
3 Figure 2 is thick.
4 Letter T deformed.
5 The second top R is larger


Type XV forgery
Printed by typography on medium white paper.
1 Top inscription has tall, thin letters.
2. Number 5 has a small lower arch.
3. The ear is long
4. Missing the last pearl in the lower left arch.
5. Lower frame has thin  letters, the 2 is high and the R is low

Comparison of genuine and forgeries 5r


Bobes black forgery
Printed by typography on medium white paper.
1 Upper inscription has high and thin letters
2 Figure 5 has a small lower arch.
3 Elongated earlobe
4 Missing last pearl in left lower arch.
5 Lower inscription with tall, thin letters.
6. Pointed shape of the crown florets.


Unlisted forgery
Excellent forgery
1 T of CERT bent
2 Dot at tip of nose is missing
3 E of CORREOS is inclined
4 Top of the 5 is thicker
5 Dots of neck not as well separated


Fournier forgery
Printed by typography on medium or thin white paper. Also found in red, blue and lilac.
1 Number 3 narrow at the top.
2 Break in the inner pearl of the central flower.
3 The figure 5 and E are inclined to the left.
4 1 and 8 are thick


Fournier forgery
As above


Novella forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
1 First O is rounded, especially the top.
2 The top of the figure 5 is slightly shorter.
3 Two very defined white dots between the first and second tres-foil counting from the left.
4 Top of  the C too curved.
5 More breaks on the top hair
6 T is noticeably inclined


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
1 Letter small s has the head slightly flattened and offset.
2 The right side of the third flower, counting from the left, is closed.
3 The eyelid is narrow. ,
4 The last whole pearl in the lower right area of the oval is large.
5 The C of CERT is wider at the bottom


Spiro forgery
overall very crude with little resemblance to the original


Type I forgery
Very thick grayish paper.
1 All the lettering and numbers do not match
2 Dot after DO not below
3 The letter frame ends are square not rounded


Type II forgery
Printed by lithography on thick, white or yellowish paper.
Overall very crude
1 Number 3 linked to 5.
2 Top letters taper to the right
3 Only five tres-foils in the diadem.
4 The shading of the hair of the head is very irregular.
5 The shading of the neck and chin is lines instead of dots.
6 Letter T of CERT very separate from the R.


Type III forgery
Printed by lithograph on medium white paper.
1 Top letter C very close to the lower frame.
2 Letter S is wide
3 Figure 5 has a thick top
4 The tres-foils don’t have a base
5 The lower inscription is very low.
6 The eye is very different


Type IV forgery
Printing by lithography on thick white paper
1 Letter C is rounded and with narrow head.
2 The 1853 figure is formed with progressively larger type.
3 Dots on the neck are sparse and thick.
4 Lower inscription has very large letters and figures.


Type V forgery
Printed by lithography on thin gray paper.
Fairly good forgery
1 C of CORREOS is rounded.
2 Central branch of the E in CERT is offset
3 The eyebrow comes to a point
4 The design of the mouth is very different

Type VIII forgery
Printed by lithography in blue on medium-thick paper.
Perhaps to represent a color error?
1. Top inscription has thin and tall letters.
2. First R of CORREOS is narrow and short.
3. Number 1 has a very short serif.
4. Number 8 the head is wider than the base.
5. 2 dots under DO and very small dot under the small S.

Comparison of genuine and forgeries 6r


Bobes orange forgery
Printed by typography on medium white paper.
1 Upper inscription has high and thin letters
2 Figure 5 has a small lower arch.
3 Elongated earlobe
4 Missing last pearl in left lower arch.
5 Lower inscription with tall, thin letters.
6. Pointed shape of the crown florets.


Novella forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
Excellent very dangerous forgery
1 The head of the figure 5 is slightly shorter.
2 Two white points are very defined and rounded, between the first and second flower, counting from the left on the crown
3 The white space between the final curved line of the band and the first lower line of shadow, is very wide.
4 The small o is rounded.
5 The figure 6 is slightly thicker.


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
1 Letter small s has the head slightly flattened and offset.
2 The right side of the third flower, counting from the left, is closed.
3 The eyelid is narrow. ,
4 The last whole pearl in the lower right area of the oval is large.
5 The C of CERT is wider at the bottom


Sperati Forgery
Reproduced by photographic means from an original
1 Notch at the base of the number 3.
2 Small point of color in the outer oval, in front of the chin.
3 Break in the union of the two pearls of the oval located in front of the small point of color described in 2.
4 Colored dash in the white space between the lower right frames.
5 The 6 is slightly tilted
6 Unusual cancel


Torres forgery
A poor forgery
1 The C of CERT is inclined and flatenned
2 Large space between the EO of CORREOS and the first O is inclined
3 The number 3 is tall
4 The R of Rs touches the frame
5 Details of the eye and nose are wrong


Type II forgery
A really crude forgery
1 Number 3 linked to 5.
2 Top letters taper to the right
3 Only five tres-foils in the diadem.
4 The shading of the hair of the head is very irregular.
5 The shading of the neck and chin is lines instead of dots.
6 Letter T of CERT very separate from the R.


Type III forgery
Printed by lithography on thick white or yellow paper. D
1 Letter C  is rounded and with narrow head.
2 the figure 1853 is formed by progressively larger type.
3 The lower left shading of the band is made with large and slightly curved stripes.
4 Shadow spots of the neck are sparse and thick.
5 Lower inscription with very large letters and figures.


Type IV forgery
Printed by lithography on thin gray paper.
1 Letter C is very rounded.
2 Large small s
3 The florets connect with the headband with a rectilinear support.
4 The eyebrow is formed by two lines coming to a point
5 The design of the mouth is very wrong


Type IX forgery
Printed by lithography on medium-thick paper.
1. Top inscription has thin letters.
2. First R is narrow and shorter than the second.
3. Figure 1 has a very short serif.
4. The 8 has a larger top than the base.
5 Sleepy eye look

1853. 10 April.
The stamps of the local mail of Madrid were engraved by D. Bartolomé
Coromina.
Printed in the National  Stamp Factory in typography in plates of 170 stamps.
Size 18 x 22 mm.
They represent the shield of Madrid.
The 3c was valid from January 1, 1853 to October 14 of the same year, and the 1c, from the following day until October 31 of 1854 when it was abolished.
They have an unusual rough metallic type paint on them which is generally oxidized to some extent.
Quantity issued;
1c, 250,750
3c, 35,020

Genuine 1c & 3c
   

Genuine Characteristics of the Series

1. A key feature of this issue is the slanted second I in INTERIOR, however some of the better forgers did copy it.
2. There is a thin letter C in the shading of the crown to the right of the two rhombus.
3 & 6. The stars above the tree and to the lower right of the tree are open at the bottom. The stars are well formed six point stars. There is no shading inside the stars.
4. The bear has a crown and the right point touches the leaves.
5. This line is thick and is not a continuation of the one on the other side of the star
7. There are three dots where the branches join above the 1. Only a few forgers got this right.

8. The first R has a longer curved right leg
9. The RA is joined
10. This element is open or with very faint line.
In CUARTO the U is slanted and the RT letters are slightly taller than the others.
The outer horizontal lines touch the outer frame but not the central octagon.


There is also a trial stamp of 2c that was not issued

Forgeries

Fournier 1c forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
Well done imitation.
1 Letter C is small.
2 Second O of CORREO is higher.
3 The fourth horizontal line of the oval does not touch the star.
4 The foot of the bear is separated from the root of the tree.
5 Only two points in the junction zone of the lower branches.


Fournier 3c forgery
As above


Oswald Schroeder forgery
The measurement is 18.l x 22.9 mm.
The letters have thicker and the lower serif
The C of CORREO touches the O as does the C of CUARTOS.
The RT of CUARTOS is joined
The crown is different and the tips touch the leaves


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper.
1 The right crown diadem resembles a G .
2 The upper star is open above and below
3 The lower dots are close to the letters and too large.
4 The lower left tip of the second star is tilted downwards.


Sperati Type I forgery
Sperati forgery
1. Tiny spot on the underside of the top frame line above the E of CORREO.
2. The head of the first I of INTERIOR is separated from its vertical line.
3. There is a small break in the O of INTERIOR.
4. The bottom serif in the F is tilted downwards
5. Curly line from the bottom frame line to the T of CUARTOS


Torres forgery
Produced by lithography on thin yellowish paper.
Overall very poor.
1 Upper and lower inscriptions have thin letters, showing remains of the parallel guide lines.
2 The stars are very small and irregular.


Type I forgery
Very rough looking forgery.
1. Crown spikes touch the tree.
2. Stars are irregular.
3. The INT is badly shaped.
4. The second R of CORREO has a short right leg
5. Letters are short and thick.


Type II forgery
Printed by lithograph on yellowish thin paper.
Overall a very poor imitation
1 Top letters are much too short
2 The bear has an odd shape and has  curved arms.
3 The stars are elongated and misshapen..
4 The lower letters don’t match especially the C and S.


Type VI forgery
A fairly poor imitation
1 Top inscription has irregular letters and, especially, the second R is very wide.
2 The stars are very irregular.
3 The link between the two lower branches is almost non-existent.
4 The lower inscription is off-center.
5 The letter A of CUARTO is wide as is the top of the T.


Type VII forgery
Printed by lithography on thin white paper. The color is golden-reddish.
1 RE is linked by its base.
2 Letter I is very large
4 Letter O of CUARTOS is tilted to the left.
5 Many of the letters are attached


Type VIII forgery
Printed by typography on yellow  paper.
1 Top I & T have large bases
2 In the crown the cross is lacking.
3 The stars are very irregular
4 The lower inscription has thick square type fonts.


Type X forgery
Printed by typography on very thick white paper.  The illustration was used in 19th century catalogs.
1 Top inscription has irregular height letters.
2 The two crown diadems touch one of the curves.
3 The stars lack points.
4 Lower inscription has thick letters


Type XI forgery
Printed by typography on thin gray paper.
A fairly dangerous imitation
1 Elements od the crown are not as well defined.
2 Dark shading in the tree
3 Letter A of FRANCO is filled in.


Type XIII forgery
Printed by lithography on medium paper.
Very poor forgery
1. Top and bottom inscriptions have very tall and thin letters.
2. The stars are circles with spines.
3. The bear is not recognizable.
4. The crown is very wide and lacking details.


Type XV forgery
Printed by lithography on medium paper.
1. Small top frame and letters
2. The crown jewels are rhomboid shaped.
3. Odd looking bear
4. Letter C of FRANCO almost touches the bottom frame.
5. The point is missing after CUARTO.


Unlisted forgery
1. The top and bottom letters are very irregular
2. Stars are different sizes
3. Tiny pearls in the crown

References
Introduccion al estudio y relacion de los sellos falsos postales de Espana – Francisco Graus
Michel Europe West 2012
Spain & Dependencies – Edifil.2009
Focus on Forgeries – Varro Tyler
Spain Specialized Vol.1 1850-1931 Edifil Tome 1

Catalogo dos Sellos De Espana – Antonio Duro
Seranne Guide to Forgeries
Torres Catalog 1879
Las falsificaciones del Sello Espanol – A. Monne 1965
SPAIN FORGERIES 1850 to 1925 by De Haene
FFE #7 FORGERIES SPAIN

Timbrex – H. Schloss
Forged Stamps of all Countries – Dorn
HANDBUCH DER BRIEFMARKENKUNDE HEFT 6: CARLISTISCHE POST – H. NEUES

Album Weeds – Earree
Tedesco Forgery Index
Handbok Fer Filatelister – S. Tullberg
Guia del coleccionista de sellos de Correos de España, 1850-54 – Tort
Many of the common auction sites that provided ample material