1851

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NOTE that colors may not reproduce accurately

1851 Issue
Quantities issued
6 cuartos: 8.785.483
12 cuartos: 82.003
2 reales: 1.432
5 reales: 42.323
6 reales: 10.860
10 reales: 15.898

6 Cuartos Genuine

Genuine characteristics
1. A & R are joined
2. There is a small line to the right of the nostril, this is almost a secret trait but difficult to see on many examples.
3. The right serif of the 1 has an upwards curve
4. The serif is long and ends in a small blob.
5. End is joined
6. Break in hair line
7. Hairs don’t extend to the rosette
8. The inner middle 3 pearls have a crescent shading
NOTE this sample has a production error behind the neck at the top.

Sample plate varieties
Small defects allow for the plating of all the 6 cuartos.
Bear in mind that Sperati made a habit of copying particular positions in the plates.

Type 4 & 23


Type 28 & 69


Type 102 & 5


Genuine issues with the less common red and blue spider cancels


An essay with typical scratched out lines

Genuine & Forgeries Comparison – genuine left
One feature of Spain forgeries is their collectability.
Many of the less common or rare forgeries can command some surprising amounts on auctions.


Bobes forgery
Bobes was a large printing house in Barcelona.
Printed by lithography on thin gray paper.
It is known printed in the six colors used in the authentic series.
Very easy to identify
1 The eye and nose
2 Absence of the bottom curve of the hair.
3 Letters “EOS” of CORREOS are larger.


Placido Torres forgery
The illustrator for Moens and Scott catalogs as well as many others of that period.
Some definite issues in many of the letters
Small nose and mouth features


Fournier right
The AN of FRANCO is not joined
The top left ornament is thick
The letters are shorter
The word CUARTOS is placed higher
The E of SEIS is almost vertical


Segui right
Point on the end of the nose
Back of the neck is not a solid line
The top of the E in SEIS is slanted differently
Thick hair lines
The center pearl of the left rosette has a half moon dash instead of a large black dot


A used Segui


Segui close-up


Spiro right
The curve of the nose is different
The shape of the rosettes is wrong
The corner elements are distorted
The line of the  nostril carries into the lip

Another Spiro


Peter Winter modern forgery
Lines of nose and mouth are very large
Letters are generally thicker


Peter Winter block


Type II forgery
1. 8 is very wide
2. Pearls all the same size
3. REOS letters are oddly shaped
4. The R of CUARTOS is large
5. Heavily shaded eye


Type VI forgery
Queen has a stern look
Many crude letters


Type VIII forgery
Thin small letters
Bulbous nose
No center crescents in the pearls

Unknown and unlisted forgeries
Many of these are quite crude and based on rarity may surprisingly have good value.


I came across this obvious forgery but I am not sure of its origin or the perforations.
Possibly modern.


This one appears to have the same author as the one above.
note the I in SEIS has almost no top serif
The eyes, nose and mouth lines are similar.


A decent forgery
Nose is pointed and nostril very different
Large O in CORREOS


Unlisted forgery
1. The I of SEIS is inclined to the right
2. The far left set of pearls has dashes instead of dots
3. The first 1 has a thick base and very small serif
4 Letters are inconsistent


Another decent forgery
Expression is different
Top serif of I of SEIS is noticeably curved
Larger rounded nose

Crude unknown source forgeries
These need no explanation

 12 Cuartos Genuine


Genuine same characteristics as the 6 cuartos

Genuine & Forgeries Comparison – genuine left


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper. It is also found on paper of brown color hue that Segui obtained by immersion  in water colored with coffee.
1 “DO” letters larger than “CE”
2 The nostril and the corners of the mouth are formed by thick and short lines.
3 The base of the second “1” is short on the right.
4 The thick line of separation between the neck and the base of the bust is open at the back.
5 The shadow of the center pearl of the rear set is an arc instead of a point.


Bobes forgery
Printed by lithography on thin gray paper.
1 The eye  especially the eyebrow is very different
2 Absence of the far left section of the hair on the neck.
3 Letters “EOS” of CORREOS very disproportionate.


Fournier forgery
Printed by lithography on thin white paper. For identification
1 Letter E from DOCE hangs down.
2 Large break in the thick curved line of the head.
3 Defective finishing of the hair band
4 Two of the vertical lines of the neck are incomplete.


Sperati forgery
Reproduction by photographic methods from a copy of the of 6 Cuartos
1 Break in “O” of FRANCO.
2 Small cleft in upper left triangle.
3 The lower bead of the rear set of the headband has an elongated rather than circular shape.
4 Break that joins the central pearl and the northeast pearl in the fourth set.
5 Break in the lobe of the nose.
6 Cleft under the lower lip.


Spiro forgery
Printed by lithography on thick white paper. Design of low quality.
1 The S of CORREOS is inclined to the left.
2 The first set of beads of the crown formed by four well distinguishable, the central one almost absent.
3 The adornments of the four corners are very deformed.
4 First “1” high.
5. The 5 has a very short top
6. The letters are uneven.


Type II forgery
Printed by lithography on thin yellowish paper.
1 Letter ‘O’ of DOCE tilted to the right and ‘C’ large.
2 The eye is topped by two lines that protrude to the right and down
3 Figure ‘5’ with short head.
4 Letter ‘A’ of CUARTOS is narrow.
5 The last set of pearls of the headband is a reportable mass of spots and stripes.


Type III forgery
Printed by typography on thin gray paper.
1. D0CE label with thick and lower letters.
2. The lower shading of the band formed by thick and short strokes.
3. CORREOS is also with thick and low letters.
4. First 1 is misshapen and without a serif in the head


Type IV forgery
Printed by lithography on thick yellow paper.
It is also known printed in blue.
1 . Letter D of DOCE is narrow.
2. Letter U with fine lines and slightly tilted to the right.
3. Letters RR joined by the base.
4. Small EOS letters.
5. Figure 5 with almost rectangular head.

2 Reales Genuine


Genuine same characteristics as the 6 cuartos

Genuine & Forgeries Comparison – genuine left


Facsimile
Reproduction without fraudulent intent
The engravings of this work are  proportional with the originals
1 Small DOS
2 The R of REALES is offset
3 First digit of ‘1’ with short serif
4 Small ‘0’ very small
5 No point after REALES
6 AL not joined
7 Pointed nose


Fournier forgery
Printed by lithography on thin white paper.
Fournier made forgeries of varying quality so expect variations
This example would easily fool any collector on an auction site
1 The nose is more pointed and the nostril curves more upwards
2 Defective finishing of the band were it curves up
3 The pupil is more shaded


Novella forgery
Very little information is known of Novella other than operating out of Valencia
Printed by typography on thin yellow paper.
Design is very well executed and lacks only finer details
1. Letter O of DOS is wide.
2. The head of the figure 5 is thin.
3. The right foot of the last 1 does not curve up
4. More of the shading dots in the neck are joined together
5. The trailing legs of the top left ornament are not joined together


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on white or yellowish paper, thin or medium.
1 Letter O is thick.
2 Second 1 without serif on the right.
3 Frontal lines of the band, thick and short.
4. The nostril is short and the eye is heavily shaded


Sperati Type I forgery
Reproduced by photographic methods of an original stamp
1 Break of the frame above, to the left of D
3 Internal oval break, top left of R
4 Break at the base of the southeast pearl of the fourth set.
5 White dot in the center of the letter S (key point).
6 Several small breaks at the end of the band.


Sperati Type II forgery
Obtained by photographic means of an original stamp
Color and the papers differ from the authentic ones.
1 Break of the oval on top right of R.
2 Break in the upper bead of the second set  on the right.
3 Break in the left side of A.
4 Central break in the second vertical line of the band at about eye level
5 Break in the first ‘O’ of CORREOS.


Spiro forgery
Printed by lithography on thick white paper. Overall quite crude
1 The word “DOS” offset to the left.
2 The first set of the diadem with only four beads.
3 The eye is heavily shaded.
4 The decorations of the four corners are  very awkward
5. Letters and numbers do not match the original


Torres forgery
Printed with thin yellow paper.
1. Wide spacing in 1851
2. Large O in DOS and thin S
3. S of CORREOS has a flat bottom
4. Heavy shading around the eye


Type I forgery
Thick white paper
1 The back of the neck formed by points instead of stripes.
2 The small O of CERTFº open at the base.
3 No point after REALES.
4. Thin mouth and lack of nostril
5. Pointed nose


Type III forgery
Printed by lithography on thick yellow paper
1 Letter OS drops down.
2 S of REALES touches the frame
4 Second O of CORREOS is higher than other letters
5 The joint between chin and neck is a continuous line.


Reproduced by photographic methods of an original stamp and printed by methods
lithographic.  Image from a catalog, actually orange.
Very dangerous forgery
1 The head of figure 8 is too wide.
2 The head of figure 5 has been thinned
3 The right base of the first 1 is short and thick.
4 The upper part of S of CORREOS is somewhat domed.
5 Second O of CORREOS is too thick in the left-bottom zone
And it has the base almost flat instead of being rounded.
6. Corner ornaments are very thick


Type VII forgery
Reproduction by photographic methods and lithography printing on gray medium paper. An extremely dangerous forgery
1 White dot above the head below the S.
2 Break in the top of the R of REALES
3 Only two points on the first line of shadow of the chin.
4 Break in the lower curve of the band’s thick line.
5 Letter E in CORREOS without a base on the left.
6 Break at the base of the small o


Type XVIII forgery
Printed by lithography on yellowish medium paper.
1. DOS subscription with very separate letters.
2. It lacks the point after REALES.
3. The design of the band is awkward.
4. The terminals of the ornaments of the four corners are circles.


Unlisted forgery
This is very well done forgery that would easily pass
The corner elements are thinner
The letters are thicker

2 Reales Blue Error
This is the holy grail of early Spain stamps
Only 3 are known to exist so any appearing on auctions are probably forgeries


Novella forgery
Very well done forgery
Ridge of the nose has a bump
Trailing of top left ornament is not joined


Segui forgery
Heavy set eye
Thick shading lines
Last 1 has short bottom right foot


Sperati forgery
The faults of the type I orange 2r above are repeated


Unlisted forgery
Thicker letters
Small central pearls


Torres forgery
Overall somewhat crude
Large eye
Wide space between 1 and 8
Thick nose and mouth lines

5 Reales Genuine


Genuine same characteristics as the 6 cuartos

Genuine & Forgeries Comparison – genuine left


Bobes forgery in black
Printed by lithography on thin gray paper. It exists printed in the six colors that make up the series.
1 Eye and eyebrow has a concerned look
2 Absence of the far left section of the hair on the neck.
3 letters “EOS” of “CORREOS” very large.


Fournier forgery
Print by typography on medium-white paper. Pink-reddish color with shades that differ markedly from those of the original seal.
1 Wide “N” letter.
2 Large break in the thick curved line at the top of the head.
3 Defective completion of the four descending lines of the third zone of the band.
4 Two of the four hair lines at the nape of the neck are incomplete.


Novella forgery
Printed by typography thin white paper.
Well done design that may well be one of the best forgeries that needs attention
1 Second ‘C’ slightly rounded.
2 The serif of the first ‘1’ is too short.
3 The fourth and fifth line of the upper part of the head with breaks in the central areas


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thick or thin yellow and white paper.
1 The 1’s in 1851 have thick serifs
2 The second 1 has a short straight base
3 Absence of the oval of the cheekbone.
4 Hair lines are thick as are the neck shading dots
The nostril line  is thick and short


Sperati type I forgery
Reproduced by photographic methods from an original stamp.
1 Break in the frontal line of the band at the level of the eyebrow.
2 White point on the head of “L”.
3 White point at the base of the second “1”.
4 Small “o” and the under point are deformed and closer than in the original.


Sperati Type II forgery
Reproduced by photographic methods of an original stamp
1 Break of the frame above, to the left of D
2 Internal oval break, top left of R
3 White dot in the center of the letter S (key point).
4 Dots of the neck are joined
5. The nose is more pointed


Spiro forgery
Printed by lithograph on thick yellow paper.
Overall a very poor reproduction
1 The letters CINCO is shifted to the left.
2 Break in the oval on “O” of CINCO.
3 First right foot “R” touches the oval.


Torres forgery
Overall very poor reproduction
1 Peculiar design of the ornaments of the corners.
2 slightly aquiline nose.
3 Letter ‘S’ of CORREOS with a straight base.
4 First ‘1’ separated from the rest of the numbers.


Type I forgery
Printed by lithography on thick yellowish paper.
Very poor imitation.
1 Top of the 5 slopes down
2 The queen looks up.
3 The corner of the eye does not touch the line of the band
4 First “1” without base.
5 Dashes above CINCO
6 The second R of CORREOS is joined at the feet


Type II forgery
Printed by lithograph on thin white paper.
Very poor overall
1 The central set consisting of eight beads.
2 The small eye with thick eyebrow.
3 The OS of CORREOS deformed
4 Letters RE joined at the base.


Type III forgery
Printed by lithography on thick yellow or thin white paper.
1 First ‘C is inclined to the left .
2 The eye has a cross shape below it.
3 Figure 5 has a short top
4 The last set of pearls without definition


Type V forgery (image from a catalog, actually red)
Printed by lithography on thin yellowish paper. Prototype obtained
possibly by photographic methods and retouched in some areas.
1 Pointed nose.
2 Upper lip not well drawn
3 The shading of the neck and jowl formed by points too thin.
4 Base of the second OR of CORREOS oblate.
5 The shading of the nape is made up of five stripes instead of four.

6 Reales Genuine


Genuine same characteristics as the 6 cuartos

Genuine & Forgeries Comparison – genuine left


Facsimile
Reproduction without fraudulent intent
The engravings of this work are  proportional with the originals
1 Small SEIS
2 The R of REALES is without serifs
3 First digit of ‘1’ with short serif
4 Small ‘0’ very small
5 No point after REALES
6 AL not joined
7 Pointed nose
8 Thin mouth and nostril


Bobes forgery in red
Printed by lithography on thin gray paper. It exists printed in the six colors that make up the series.
1 Eye and eyebrow has a concerned look
2 Absence of the far left section of the hair on the neck.
3 letters “EOS” of “CORREOS” very large.


Novella forgery
Created by typography on thin yellow paper.
Were it not for the color, this would be an extremely dangerous forgery
1 The serif of the head of the 1 is coarsely attached to the body and the serif is slightly short.
2 The left bottom corner element is too thin
3 The fourth and fifth lines of the upper area of the head have large breaks.
4. Some of the central pearls of the florets are smaller


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thin white paper. It exists on yellowish paper.
1 The inner shadow of the central pearl of the latter set is an arc instead of a point.
2 Nose and mouth lines are short.
3 The right base of the second 1 is short.
4 The first 1 serif line is short.
5 The frontal lines of the band are short and thick.


Sperati forgery
Reproduction by photographic means of an authentic stamp. Paper and color same as the authentic ones.
1 Break above RE.
2 Color spot on top left ornament.
3 Break in the letter F-
4 Vertical line breaks of the hair.


Spiro forgery
Printed by lithograph on thick paper.
Overall a very poor imitation
1 The terminal triangle of the base of E is very large.
2 The base of the letter A is closed, resembling a triangle.
3 The figure 5 is closed in.
4 The right foot of the first R of CORREOS touches the oval.


Torres forgery
Nose curves downwards
Top of S in SEIS is slanted
E of CORREOS badly formed
C of CORREOS is squarish with no serif
Thick lines in mouth & nose
Shading in hair very different
Wide space in “1 851”
Corner elements wrong

Given all the faults shown above, this one was certified genuine.
This give weight to the argument that country specific experts or groups should be consulted on authentication.
In the case of Spain a certifier such as CEM (Comisión de expertos de Madrid) or COMEX (Comision de Expertos Filatelicos)
   


Type II forgery
1 Except for the letter R of REALES, the others lack or have very small serifs
2 Second R of CORREOS is too open at the base.
3 R of CERTIF is lacking the serif.
4 The shadow line of the neck is very pronounced.


Type III forgery
Printed by lithography on thick  paper
Overall very crude
1 Second S of SEIS touches the oval by the base.
2 Second O of CORREOS open at the base.
3 Error showing FRANCO instead of CERTIF.


Type V forgery
Made by typography on thick white paper.
1 l of SEIS out of alignment.
2 The upper right triangle moved up. .
3 Figure 1has a very short base.
4 Protrusion in the neck


Type VI forgery
Printed by typography on thick white or yellow paper.
Very crude design.
1 Letters SEIS are crude
2 Figures 1 have short bases and serifs.
3 Small o is very deformed.
4 Florets are irregular shapes.


Type VII forgery
Printed by lithography on thick yellow or thin white paper.
1 Second S has the lower curve slightly closed.
2 The eye is topped by two lines that protrude to the right and down.
3 Number 5 has a short head.
5 The last set of pearls is lacking definition.


Type VIII forgery
Printed on thick or thin grayish paper
1 Letter I is very thin.
2 Missing point after REALES.
3 Figures 1 without bases.
4 Second O of CORREOS is very large.
5 Letters RR are very wide.


Type XI forgery
Very dangerous forgery
Reproduced by photographic methods and printed by off-set.
May be a modern reproduction (Peter Winter??)
1 Break at the base of the first line of the band.
2 A of REALES with a slightly rounded head.
3 The central bead of the last set has the inner point too centered.
4 On this same set there is a well defined white point.


Type XIII forgery
Printed by lithography on medium paper.
1 Inscription SEIS with thin and tall letters.
2 Letters ES of REALES large and close to each other.
3 Thick heavily shaded hair band.


Type XIV forgery
Printed by typography on thick white paper.
A rather poor forgery
1. The eye made without detail and with thick lines.
2. The lobe of the nose is thick andpointed.
3. Large cleft in the chin
4. First 1 has a short serif and thick base.

10 Reales Genuine


Genuine same characteristics as the 6 cuartos

Genuine & Forgeries Comparison – genuine left


Bobes forgery blue
Printed by lithography on thin gray paper. It is known in all colors of the original series.
1 The eye and eyebrow are different and more open
2 Pearls of the rosettes are malformed
3 EOS letters of CORREOS, disproportionate.
4 The first 1 has a short serif with the wrong angle.


Bobes forgery black
As above


Fournier forgery
Printed by typography on medium or thin white paper.
1 Large break in the thick curved line of the hair above the rosette.
2 Two of the four hair lines at the nape of the neck are incomplete.
3 The ends of the top left ornament are not joined as in #5 of the genuine traits
4 Eye is more shaded


Novella forgery
Created by typography on thin  paper.
Very dangerous forgery
1 Color point on  the  E of DIEZ.
2 The serif of the first 1 is short.
3 Top corner elements are thicker
4 The head of the 5 is slightly shorter


Segui forgery
Printed by typography on thin white or thick yellowish paper.
Overall very good and dangerous
1 The inner shadow of the central pearl of the last set is an arc instead of a
point.
2 The nose and mouth end lines are short.
3 The right base of the second 1 is short as is the serif.
4 The frontal lines of shadow of the band are thick and short.
5 The right end of the bust is shaped differently


Sperati Type I forgery
Reproduced by photographic methods.
1 Small protuberance on the left side of I of DIEZ.
2 Break at the top of the E of DIEZ.
3 Left foot of A ends with a point.
4 A head is cut diagonally.
5 Small protrusion in the upper right corner.
6 Spot of color in the white space below the first R of CORREOS.
7 Break in the third horizontal line of hair.
8 Break at the top of the first line of the band.


Sperati type II forgery
1 The upper scroll has thicker lines and one touches the frame
2 The E of REALES is open at the top.
3 The second 1 has a round top and short serif.
4 The lower right ornament is very thick and touches the frame.
5 Several breaks in letters
6 Break in the second vertical line of the nape of the neck.


Spiro forgery
Printed by lithograph on thick yellow paper.
Very poor imitation
1 Letter E of DIEZ touches the top frame.
2 The base of the A is closed, resembling a triangle.
3 Figure 5 is closed ..
4 The right foot of the first R touches the oval.
Many other issues with the design and letters


Spiro variation


Spiro variation


Type I forgery
Immediately recognized by FRANCO instead of CERTIFo
Facial features very crude
All the letters too tall


Type IV forgery
Printed by lithography on thick yellow or thin white paper.
1 Center line of the E of DIEZ moved upwards and the base of the Z extends too far.
2 The eye is topped by two lines that protrude to the right and down.
3 Number 5 has a short head.
4 The last set of pearls has poor definition.


Type V forgery
Printed by lithography from a photograph.
Overall very good
corroborate the differential data, I will say that:
1 The right bead of the first set is deformed.
2 Color point on top of the second E.
3 The eye is heavily shaded
4 Protuberance in the back of the second R of CORREOS.
5 The numbers are slightly thicker
6 More dots in the neck are joined


Type VII forgery
Printed by typography on thick paper
1. The corner elements are thick and lines touch the frame
2. The top of the E of DIEZ is inclined.
3. The hair lines are irregular.
4. The right foot of the second R  is elongated.
5. Second O slightly displaced downwards.


Type IX forgery
Printed by typography on thin gray paper.
Crude design overall
1. The centers of the large pearls lack dots
2. Neck shading is lines instead of dots
3. Large letters RE of CORREOS.
4. 1861 has thin and tall figures.

References
Introduccion al estudio y relacion de los sellos falsos postales de Espana – Francisco Graus
Michel Europe West 2012
Spain & Dependencies – Edifil.2009
Focus on Forgeries – Varro Tyler
Spain Specialized Vol.1 1850-1931 Edifil Tome 1

Catalogo dos Sellos De Espana – Antonio Duro
Seranne Guide to Forgeries
Torres Catalog 1879
Las falsificaciones del Sello Espanol – A. Monne 1965
SPAIN FORGERIES 1850 to 1925 by De Haene
FFE #7 FORGERIES SPAIN

Timbrex – H. Schloss
Forged Stamps of all Countries – Dorn
HANDBUCH DER BRIEFMARKENKUNDE HEFT 6: CARLISTISCHE POST – H. NEUES

Album Weeds – Earree
Tedesco Forgery Index
Handbok Fer Filatelister – S. Tullberg
Guia del coleccionista de sellos de Correos de España, 1850-54 – Tort
Many of the common auction sites that provided ample material