Fiume

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NOTE – in many cases I do not have the actual series stamp so genuines or forgeries may or may not have overprints for display purposes

December 2, 1918.
The first Rijeka stamp. The black hand-stamped FIUME overprint on a Hungarian 20 filler stamp.
This was followed by a series of overprints on stamps of various denominations and types of Hungary.
The overprint was applied by 2 printing plates and 6 handstamps.
This overprint is by far the most forged type found. Some are very crude but there are also very good ones and I can only provide details of the 6 genuine handstamps and the 2 machine ones.
Inverted and double overprints are found in the series but the 10f rose red is only found with an inverted overprint and it is extremely scarce

6 Handstamps

 

 

 

2 Printing Plates

 

The first handstamp has broken features and can be found in other varieties

January 30, 1919/April 3, 1919.
The first issue of Rijeka-postage stamps. The stamps were printed in four print runs, and differ by paper type.
They were printed in litho by Zanardini of Trieste.
Line perforated 11½ with both sharp and blunt perforations.

   
Genuine left
The forgery lacks details especially in the eyes and hair
The star is a main feature and it is not well formed as in the genuine
The ends of the E in FIUME are not squared off

  
Genuine left
The forgery again lacks detail
The background skyline dashes are heavier
The clock lacks the hour hand
The top of the house on the right appears to have 4 windows instead of 3

  
Genuine left
The forgery is well done
The diagonal background lines are broken in many places
There is a white spot between the dress and lion’s tail which seems to appear in all the forgeries

  
Genuine ;left
There apparently are 2 types of forgeries of this issue
The forgery in the middle is lacking in many details
The cross on the flag is poorly formed
The lines in the sailor’s cape are broken
The forgery on the right is much better
The shading lines especially in the water are much heavier than the genuine
There is a small dent in the right junction of the cross – this is a key feature.

May 18, 1919.
A commemorative issue with  excess postage for the benefit of a student fund.
Printed lithography by Bertieri & Vanzetti of Milan.
The stamps were designed by Leopoldo Metlicovitz.
On the back of the stamps there is the protective triple-row POSTA di FIUME print.
11½ line perforated.

  
Genuine left
The forgery overall is good
A close inspection of the leaves reveals they lack the tiny horizontal lines of the genuine.
The horizontal lines in the base below the wolf are lacking


Genuine left
The forgery lacks details
The lettering besides the ship is indistinct
The fine detail of the stern section is missing
Fine detail lines in the sea, sky and sails are missing

  
Genuine left
The forgery typically lacks details as the others in the series
The text in the background is unreadable

October 9, 1919 – March 6, 1920
Hand overprint FRANCO and new values on stamps of 1919.
Here I can show examples of the genuine overprints below as the forgeries are abundant and diversified.
The fakes range from good to very crude



 
A genuine stamp and typical crude forgery right
Many of the fakes lack the common break in the line above the R
The left leg of the A is often too long and complete
The last 2 letters are often too thick with the O not oval enough

September 12, 1920.
Gabriele D’Annunzio stamps
The stamps were printed in two colors, of which the first one is a tint.
They were printed in letterpress by Bertieri & Vanzetti of Milan
11½ line perforated
Aside from the early FIUME overprints, these are probably the most common forgeries.

2 key features of the genuine
  
The O is round and note the shape of the S
Above the eye there are 2 lines

   
Genuine left, Type I and Type II forgery
In the Type I, the O is oval and the S is slanted
Above the eye, there are 2 lines with 3 dots above them
There are dots between the letters of the name below the 25
In the Type II, the O is round but above the eye, there are 2 lines with 3 dots above them
Note also that shading lines are much coarser

At the same time 2 Special Delivery stamps were created
   

The forgery is easy to identify

The rider is faceless
The horse has a break in the leg
Overall, shading lines are lacking

September 12, 1920.
The commemorative issue marking the first anniversary of the arrival of D’Annunzio’s legionaries in Rijeka.
The drawings were made by Adolfo de Carolis according to D’Annunzio’s ideas
Printed lithography by Danesi of Rome.
11½ line perforated

Forgeries can relatively easily be identified by the top inscription

Genuine – Look for;
1. The extended serifs to the bottom left of the T and both I’s
2. The slope of the D
3. The right angle in the F & E


Forgery Type I
1. Slope of D wrong
2. No serif extensions


Forgery Type II
Although similar to the genuine
1. Right angles in F & E lacking
2. Overall very crudely shaped letters

Forgery Type III
Same as type II but on a rougher yellowish ribbed paper

The following forgeries can be identified by comparing them to the inscriptions above.

   
Genuine and Type I forgery

    
Genuine and Type I  and Type II forgeries

  
Type I  and Type II forgeries


Genuine and Type I forgery

Military stamps of the occupation of Carnaro have a ‘Reggenza’ handstamp of the higher values

Genuine stamp

The 3 types of forgeries are quite easy to distinguish
 
Genuine and Forgery Type I

  
Forgery Type II and Forgery Type III

November 18, 1920.
Postage stamps for the island of Rab.
A black ARBE overprint on the Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro stamps of Rijeka from 1920.
The overprint is 3,5 mm high and 15,5 mm long.
A smaller overprint was also used and it is 2.5 mm high
and 12.5 mm long.
Overprinted in letterpress by Urania of Rijeka.
NOTE – as is common with other countries fake overprints are to be found on forged stamps
The forgeries are VERY plentiful and include the following small designs

  
Genuine and Type I forgery
Type I the bottom left of the B & E and the inside R are not 90o angles

  
Type II forgery and Type III forgery
Type II the bottom of the E is too curved
Type III the space between the AR is too wide

It was also printed in a large ARBE design


Type II forgery large font
There is also another type but it is very crude and blotchy.


Type II forgery

November 18, 1920.
Postage stamps for the island of Krk.
A black VEGLIA overprint on the Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro stamps of Rijeka .
The overprint is 3.5 mm  by  and 19-19.75 mm.
Overprinted in letterpress by Urania of Rijeka.
The forgeries are VERY plentiful and include the following designs;

  
Genuine and Type I forgery
Note in the genuine that there is ink bleed/squeeze at the top and bottom, this is typical of the pressure from typeset. Most of the forgeries are lithography and this is not the case.
Typeset can also be squeezed through the stamp and show on the reverse depending on the paper.
The type I the first letters are not aligned and slope.

  
Type II forgery and Type III forgery
The type II is very deceptive and the key is the lower left of the E which slopes upwards.
The Type III, the lower leg of the E is long and the orizontal bar of the G is inclined

March 23, 1923.
Issue of Rijeka from the 17th century on special delivery stamps.
Drawings by Guido Marussig.
The stamps were printed in two colors, of which the first one is a tint.
Printed in letterpress by Bertieri & Vanzetti of Milan.
Line perfs 11, 11½, 11×11½ or 11½×11

   
Genuine and Forgery Type I
In the forgery;
1. The O of POSTE is oval shaped
2. The cordage is unclear
3. The windows/portholes on the ship are smaller
4. The anchor is narrower
5. The dividing lines in the sails are thicker

There is also a Type II forgery
1. The O is round as in the genuine
2. The lines in the sails are thinner than the genuine and the cordage is indistinct

  
Genuine left , Forgery Type I right
In the forgery
1. The O of POSTE is oval
2. The arch has several feature differences
3. The top letters are shaped differently


This one is an unknown
1. The DI is different in shape and size
2. The bottom letters are not evenly sized
3. The 2’s don’t match the Genuine or Type I
4. Overall features in the arch are different
There is a Type II forgery but a key feature is a break on the top inside left arch


Genuine left, Forgery Type I right
In the forgery
1. The O is oval shape
2. The top letters are thicker
3. The key feature is the well defined rays in the halo. In the genuine they are almost invisible


Genuine left, Forgery Type II right
In the forgery
1. The O is round shaped
2. Well defined rays in the halo
3. The facial features are very different from the original and Type I forgery

   
Genuine left, Forgery Type I right
In the forgery
1. The O is oval shape
2. The top letters are thicker
3. The image is slightly shorter than the genuine
4. The top opening in the A’s is large but very tiny in the genuine

2 Special Delivery stamps were also issued at the same time
 

The forgeries are dined by a single trait

The genuine is noted as having 6 windows between the towers but only 5 in the forgery.
There are also some differences in details
This seems plausible except that I have found the following on different auction sites.

Here we find the genuine and the “forgery” together.
So it would appear there is a discrepancy and the missing window is just a plate fault
Actually if you click to a larger picture, a faint remnant of the missing window is visible.
I did not find anything that might actually be a forgery at this point.

February 22, 1924.
Both the Regno d’Italia overprint and the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy overprint in black on the stamps on the occasion of the annexation of Rijeka to Italy.
Overprinted in letterpress by Urania of Rijeka.

 
Genuine left, Forgery Type I and Type II
The Type I is very deceptive
The lines at the top ends curl in more than the genuine
The top of the E is not slanted
The lower diamond shape is different
The Type II
The tip of the crown is missing
The shape at the bottom is tear drop shape and not diamond
All the letters are crudely done

References
Billig’s Vol 6
Catalogue of Fiume stamps – Martinaš
Forgeries CD2 – Klaseboer
Italy Colonies & Occupation. Unificato 2018
Etude sur les faux timbres – De Heane
Fiume 1918-1924 – I servizi postali e la filatelia – Emoroso
Focus on Forgeries – Tyler
Online auctions