Czechoslovakia

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The Hradčany series
Mi 25 10h
Designer : Alfons Mucha
l0 h yellow green
Validity: Jan. 3, 1920 to April 30, 1921
Imperforate
Comb perforation 13 3/4 x 13 1/ 2
Comb perforation 11 3/4
Line perforation 13 3/4
White to yellowish paper in various thicknesses with white gum.
Typographed
Size of design: 26.3 x 22.3 mm

  

Mi 25


1. The details of the dome of St . Nicholas cathedral are sharply defined.
2 . In the left corner the linden leaves are completely dotted.
3 . On the right side the linden branch is of the s ame thickness along its entire length .
4 . The wings of the doves are shaded in by thin lines.
5. There is a dot above the steeple.

All of the forgeries are quite good and require proper scrutiny
Forgery A
Yellowish or grayish paper with grayish gum and normal thickness.
Typographed
Size of design: 26.3 x 22.2 mm
This was discovered in 1932 along with a similar 20h carmine and 30h red violet.
It is noted to occur with a genuine cancel after the April 30th, 1921 expiry.
These were produced in large quantities.

1. The details of the dome of St. Nicholas cathedral are not sharp.
2 . In the left corner the linden leaves ·are partially dotted .
3 . On the right side, the linden branch is of the same thickness along its entire length.
4 . The wings of the doves and the hearts are shaded with thick irregular lines.

Forgery B
l0h yellow green with many shades
White paper with white gum and normal thickness.
Typography
Size of design: 26.3 x 22.2 mm.


1. The details on the dome of St. Nicholas cathedral are not sharp.
2. In the left corner the linden leaves are partially dotted.
3. On the right the linden branch has a lump in the center.
4. The shading of the hearts and doves is coarser and unclear.

Forgery C
10h yellow green.
Probably printed from a single die so all are similar.
The gum is white and thinly applied.
The paper is gray.
Typography
Size of design: 26 x 22 mm.

1. A small colored dot is missing above the dome of St. Nicholas cathedral.
2. In the left corner the linden leaves are dotted similarly to the original.
3. On the right side the linden branch is of the same thickness along its entire length.
4. There is a large white spot under the “P” in “POSTA” .
5. Above the roof of St. Vitus cathedral there is a colored spot.
6. A large white spot in the bushes below St. Vitus cathedral.
7. There is a small colored dot after the number 10 in the value tablet.

Many of the traits described with the 10h are applicable to the whole series

Mi 27 20h
Designer : Alfons Mucha
l0 h yellow green
Validity: Jan. 3, 1920 to April 30, 1921
Imperforate
Comb perforation 13 3/4 x 13 1/ 2
Comb perforation 11 3/4
Line perforation 13 3/4
White to yellowish paper in various thicknesses with white gum.
Typographed
Size of design: 26.5 x 22.3 mm


Genuine 20h

Forgeries
Aside from traits mentioned in Part 1, this issue has 2 main keys to recognize thr forgery
1. The position of the “2” in the oval
  
In the forgeries (right), the “2” touches the frame
2. The shape of the roof

In the genuine the roof is serrated and uneven, in the forgery it is even and straight.
3. Look for differences in the shading lines in the doves, broken or thick heavy lines

Mi 29 30h red violet
Validity: April 12, 1920 to April 30, 1921
Imperforate
Comb perforation 13 3/4 x 13 1/2
Comb perforation 11 3/4
Line perforation 13 3/4
Line perforation 11 1/2
Line perforation 11 1/2 x 13 3/4
White paper in various thicknesses with white gum.
Typography –
Size of design: 26.8 x 22.9 mm


Genuine 30h

Forgeries
1. In the genuine the roof is visibly serrated in the forgeries, the roof is straight and even
2. Look for differences in the shading lines in the doves, thick heavy amost completely shaded

Gutter Pairs

Gutter pairs occur in the above format an also with the bottom stamp upside down

Forgeries
1. The stamp spacing is 33.8mm in the genuine and 43.5mm in the forgery
2. The sun is made up of dots in the original but a solid line in the forgery

Mi 8 l00h brown
Validity: January 14, 1919 to April 3o, 1921
Imperforate
This stamp was never officially perforated.
Usually white paper, at times slightly yellowish of various thicknesses with bright colour of the stamp, and white to brownish gum.
Typography
Size of design: 26.5 x 22.6 mm.

Genuine 100h

Forgeries
1. The linden branch has 3 stems in the genuine, 2 in the forgery
2. A large ray in the genuine, not present in the forgery
3. The dome has no spire in the genuine (left below), there is a spire in the forgery (right below)
  
This forgery was made to defraud the post office not collectors.
It was known as the “WEIPART” forgery as this was the town name on the cancel.


Mi 9 Genuine
200 h ultramarine to violet blue
Validity : January 14, 1919 to April 30, 1921
Imperforate
Comb perforation 13 3/ 4 x 13 1/2
Usually white paper at times slightly yellowish of various thickness.
Ultramarine to violet colour in various shades .
The gum is white or grayish .
Typography
Size of design: 26.5 x 22.6 mm.

Genuine Traits
1. There is only one prominent sun ray
2. There is no spire on the dome
3. The spiral ornament is well formed
4. The linden branch breaks into 3 branches
5. The small tower is not completely shaded

6. The “2” does not touch the frame or the “0”

Forgeries
The first one was made to defraud the government. Design size 26.5 X 21.8mm
1. There is no sun ray
2. There is a small spire on the roof
3. The spiral ornament is irregularly shaped
4. The linden branch breaks into 2 branches
5. The small tower is completely shaded

6. The “2” does touch the frame and the “0”

 
Forgery left, genuine right
The 2nd forgery is very well done & the above has appeared on wiki and auctions imperforated and perfed.
The size is 26.5 X 22.6mm
It has most of the traits of the genuine and generally the details are clearer with finer lines.
It was produced in a block of 8, these appear as genuine on auctions.
The outstanding forgery detail is the name on the bottom left. On genuine stamps it is basically unreadable, here the word “MUCHA” is quite clear.


300 h gray green
Validity: April 22, 1919 to Apri l 30, 1921
Imperforate
White paper, at times yellowish or grayish of various thickness
Colour of stamp is of various shades: from light to blue green
The gum is either white or grayish.
Stamps of this denomination were not officially perforated.
Typography
Size of design: 26.5 x 22.6 mm

Genuine Traits


1. The tip of the steeple of St .Vitus cathedral does not reach the line of the arch

2 . There is an accent over the letter “A” in “SLOVENSKA” on the top right side
3 . The right and the left frames of the circles consist of thin lines

Forgery
This forgery was intended to defraud the government
It normally carries the “Vejprty” cancel
The paper is grayish and the stamp is a pale olive green
Size of design: 25.6 X 21.8mm


1. The tip of the steeple of St .Vitus cathedral does reach the line of the arch

2 . There is no accent over the letter “A” in “SLOVENSKA” on the top right side
3 . The right and the left frames of the circles consist of thick lines and a small center.

Forgeries of the 1st Airmail Issue

Owing to high airmail rates, 14 Kc to Strasbourg, 24 Kc to Paris and 28 Kc to London, the public showed little or no interest in acquiring these stamps or using the service.
Only an estimated 4-450 letters were actually sent. As the dates of the flights are known, one feature of the validity of the postmark on covers can be ascertained.
For the first issue 300,000 were printed and were valid until April 30th. 1921. They remained on sale after this date but basically no one including dealers were interested and in 1933 all remainders were destroyed.
After this date the forgeries of the overprint appeared as well as complete forgeries and fake cancels.

Although the note in the above states that “excellent counterfeits” exist, most forgery manuals note the following traits as predominant in the forgeries.

1. The round tip of the left wing
2. The standing pilot
3. The missing struts
4. The dotted shading instead of lines
5. The small misshapen wheels
6. The blurred insignia under the wing

I doubt that the above forgery would fool too many collectors. I would venture to say that with this data alone, most if not all the forgeries would go unnoticed.
I was not able to locate any similar forgery.

Genuine traits to look for.
14 Kc on a 200 h ultramarine
Overprint red-brown, with metallic luster.
Validity: imperforate, August 11, 1920 to April 30, 1921, perforated, September 14, 1920 to April 30, 1921
Imperforate
Perforated 13 3/4
Perforated 13 3/4 x 13 1/2
Overprint. performed by typography
Overprint dimensions:
Width of propellers 25.0 mm.
Height of numerals 4.5 mm.

1. Note the number of struts and their directions
2. Clearly defined insignia with one horizontal line in the inner circle
3. Round head of pilot with a strut attached
4. Oval shaped wheels with a wider left side and a dot in the center.
5. Shaded propellers
6. The bottom of the “C” longer than the top & note the opening width
7. The width of the propellers is 25.0mm
8. Shading inside the centers
9. Curved left side and inclined top of the “4”
10. 3 dark areas
11. 3 dots in this section (difficult to see)
12. The rudder line has a step on it
13. This area is rounded
14. Sharp, even sided support strut
15. Note the slope of this wing tip
16. Note the length of the serif


Genuine example

Forgeries with the more obvious traits
  
Forgery1 & 2

  
Forgery 3 & 4
The forgeries were printed on the 200h blue/ultramarine.
Forgery 3 is an exception, it was printed on the 5h green and several other denominations including the Legionnaire and Special Delivery.
It was also printed on white paper & sold as Trial Proofs.

  
Forgery 5 & Trial Proof
Forgery 5 is by far the most dangerous with the key being the pointed left wing and the large dash in the right wheel.
The others, their faults are quite evident when compared to the original. Most issues are in the wing slopes, the pilot and the landing wheels.
I have included a Trial Print for comparison, these are fairly common and not high priced.

  
Original 24Kc & 28Kc

Forgeries
The same traits of the genuine 14Kc apply to these forgeries
The 24Kc is 25.7mm wide and the numerals 4.3mm high
The 28Kc is 25.2mm wide and the numerals 4.5mm high with thicker numerals

Most of the forgeries have differences in these sizes, shading and numerals

Forgeries of the 2nd Airmail Issue

A reduction of airmail rates required the issuance of new airmail stamps on June 15, 1922.
Denominations of l00h, 200h and 400 h of the 1920 issue Agriculture and Science were overprinted showing an airplane, two propellers and new denomination marking of 50h, 100h and 250h.
The validity of the stamps ended on March 31, 1931.
Counterfeits of the overprint are found on mint stamps, but primarily on used stamps.


The Genuine Issue

Most of the characteristics of the first series apply to this airplane.

Forgeries of the 50h
The main forgeries which occurs mainly on used stamps can be determined by the following;
1. The right wheel is very round
2. The numerals are 5.5mm high
3. There is no step in the rudder
4. The pilot’s head is not joined to the strut
5. The bottom propeller right side is not rounded

There is another forgery which is very crude and smeared.
1. The back rudder is rounded
2. The pilot’s head is joined by a smeared line
3. The landing wheels are malformed


Forgeries of the 100h
All the traits of the genuine 50h apply
In the first forgery;
1. The right wheel is very round
2. The numerals are 4.5mm high
3. There is no step in the rudder
4. The pilot’s head is not joined to the strut
5. The bottom propeller right side is not rounded
6. The ink is very shiny and uneven

There is another forgery which is very crude
1. The back rudder is not straight and there is no step
2. The ink is a very dull color with frequent smudges
3. The landing wheels are malformed



Forgeries of the 250h

All the traits of the genuine 50h apply
The 1st forgery
1. The overprint is a light blue instead of black
2. The numerals are 4.7mm high
3. There is no step in the rudder
4. The landing wheels are round
5. The bottom propeller right side is not rounded
6. The numerals are 4.7mm high

The 2nd forgery
1. The landing wheels are round
2. The right side of the bottom propeller is bowed inwards
3. The top of the rudder is wavy without a step
4. The overprint is violet
5. The numerals are 4.7mm high

The 3rd forgery
1. The overprint is grey-violet
2. The numerals are 4.6mm high
3. The head of the pilot is malformed and almost touches the wing
4. The rudder has a pronounced deep step
5. The landing wheels are egg shaped
6. Overall the details are noticeably incomplete

Chainbreaker Series

The Freed Republic (Chainbreaker series)
Designer: Vratislav Hugo Brunner
Printed by the Graphic Union , Prague
Validity: 8-16-1920 to 12 -31-1925
40 h red brown
Comb perforation 14
Line perforation 13 3/4
Imperforate – unissued
Typography – Size of design : 18.2 x 22.0 mm.


Genuine same traits as the 60 h below

Forgery


Design Size 18 x 21.8 mm
1. Shape of hands different and lacking shading
2. Line under mouth missing
3. Large center in the cross
4. Points different and lacking veins
5. Shape of mound different
6. Shading overalllacking separation and definition
7. Letters blurred
8. Short lines lacking the double curve

60 h blue
Validity: 8-16-1920 to 12-31-1925
Comb perforation 14
Line perforation 13 3/4
Imperforate unissued
Typography – Size of design: 18.2 x 22.0 mm.

1. Note the shape, points and veins in leaves
2. Note the balanced shape of this mound
3. Shading lines are clear and even
4. The letters are legible
5. Note the double curve and length of these folds
6. A short line between the mouth and chin
7. Small shading line in both bracelets
8. Note the number and shape of the lines in the palms as well as the shape of the hands
9. The “P” and “O” do not touch

Forgeries


1. Shape of leaves different
2. Mound different shape
3. Shading lines are coarse
4. Letters blurred
5. Creases intersect
Perforations are uneven


Design size; 18.4 x 21.6 mm
1. Letters are thin
2. Thin fingers and palms lack lines
3. Lines not distinct
4. Letters blurred
5. Thick crease and intersecting lines

Other Forgeries
The 40 h and 60 h also possess forgeries intended to defraud the post office.
These are generally found cancelled and tend to be very crude in design
Size is much smaller than originals

Forgeries of the 50 h are similar to the 60 h
The perforations are almost 14 and cut very sharply
Design size 18.0 x 21.8 mm

A 100 h exists and appears quite good but comparison with the 60 h traits will readily reveal inconsistencies
The perfs are line 11.5 and the design is 18.4 x21.7 mm. These are rare as only about 700 made it to collectors before the rest were confiscated and destroyed (about 19,000)
The 185 h forgery was also confiscated in large quantities and not many exist
Perforation is 11.5
The 250 h forgery was apparently confiscated and completely destroyed

For the ones that imperforates were unissued, fake perforations abound. Uneven, sharp cuts with large holes are the main keys.

Plebiscite stamps overprinted SO 1920

On the advice of an Allied commission all valid Czechoslovak stamps were overprinted SO 1920 for use in Tessin, Spis and Orava territories which were subject to a controversy between Czechoslovakia and Poland. These stamps were valid from February 13, 1920 until August 8, 1920.
They came from regular stocks. Therefore there are the same differences and errors of issues in print, perforations, paper, colour shades, etc.
The overprinting was made by direct typography by the Czech Graphic Union in Prague. There were four different kinds of plates of 100 stamps
The overprints and stamps used were;

Hradcany issue and for newspaper stamps (3 plates)

  

T.G. Masaryk issue (1 plate)

Special delivery stamps (1 plate)

Postage due stamps (1 plate)

Due to urgency, large quantities of stamps, wear on plates, there are many inverted or incomplete overprints.
Genuine perforated stamps have the perfs cut off so ample margins are required for authenticity.
Scarce perforated varieties were fabricated from imperfs.
Counterfeit cancels exist with wrong dates or cancelled outside the affected territories.
Entire forgeries with fake overprints also exist.
Postmarks are often illegible.
All in all, a real challenge for the collector second only to the 1919 overprints.

NOTE
Each of the 6 plates used has many varieties that include deformed letters, damaged letters, letters too close, too far apart or out of alignment. Plating diagrams are available

Some Basic Forgeries


Genuine Hradcany Overprint

Forgeries
  
Left, deformed foot of “1”
Right, a small dash in the upper “0” and and a curved foot on the “1”


Genuine Postage Due Overprint

Forgeries
  
Left, overprint shorter, letters are coarse, “2” is closed, “1” is deformed
Right, thin coarse letters, foot of “1” is misshapen, “S” is tilted to the right
Print on both is rough

  
Masaryk and Special delivery Genuine
I do not have forgeries of these

Miscellaneous Forgeries

Stamps of the First Anniversary of the Czechoslovak Republic, designed by Jacob Obrovsky and printed by the Czech Graphic Union, Prague

Imperforates were produced for both series but not officially issued
Fakes are produced on ALL of the 6 issues by trimming the perforations
Based on known blocks of imperforates;
For the 75 h, 100 h and 120 h denominations the minimum size of the margins should be 2 mm. on the vertical and 2.3 mm on the horizontal sides.
For the 15 h, 25 h and 50 h should be 2.3 mm on the horizontal sides and the vertical sides 2 mm.

Lion Breaking Chains
Typography
15 h gray green 25 h dark brown 50 h blue

  

Mother and Child
75 h gray 100 h violet brown 120 h violet/yellow
  

Forgeries
I have not seen any listed to date

Forged perforations and re-perforated stamps
The genuine perforations can be recognized by measuring them on a perforation gauge and by comparing them with a genuine stamp.
Comb perforations of the legionnaire stamps occur only in 133/4 x 131/2 and 131/2 x 133/4 respectively . Forgeries of this perforation may not occur.

The line perf stamps have been extensively forged particularly the higher values in 101/2 perf.

What to look for;
1. Compare the edges of each individual hole to see if an indentation is visible as in the genuine. (grooves made by the pressure of the pin) .
2. Check whether the small variations recur in the opposite row as with the genuine
3. The forgery may have unusually regular horizontal perforations and the edges of the horizontal rows are slightly narrower.
4. With the genuine, indentations from the perforating pins are visible.
5. In the forgeries, the perforations are generally sharp (cut clean ).
6. On the forgeries, one may note that the holes and teeth of the perforations do not coincide on the opposite sides.

1919 Overprint
The remainder of Austrian and Hungary stamps at post offices within Czechoslovakia were returned to Prague, sorted and over printed with these lines: POSTA CESKOSLOVENSKA 1919.
There are 8 main types shown below and sub types. In all at least 25 varieties that were extensively forged. I will not review these but for interested parties, I do have extensive information.

1920 Dove
Forgeries exist of all denominations and are generally quite good.

  
Genuine left compared to forgery right
There are minor details in the size and shape of the letters in particular the designer’s name.
Perforations and paper need to be carefully checked.

With the pairs, the 5 h and 10 h forgeries are easily recognized

The genuine above the stamps are offset with the forgery they are in line as with the photo below

Bedrich Smetana
50 h vivid green
From a photograph
Engraver: Karel Seizinger
The stamp was issued on occasion of the 50th anniversary of Bedrich Smetana’s death.
Validity: March 24 , 1934 to February 28 , 1937
Perforation: line 9 3/4
Rotary steel engraving.
Design dimensions: 18.5 x 20.5 mm .


Genuine
1. The name SMETANA is clearly visible
2. Two leaves are discernible
3. The rim of the eyeglasses is interrupted
4. The letter U contains a circle
5. The letter R contains a hook
6. The letter E in the word HALERU contains an accent

Forgery – no samples
The known forgery is uncommon as the forger was caught before distributing many of his works.
Traits
1 . The name SMETANA is unclear.
2. There is only one leaf.
3. The drawing of the eyeglasses is not interrupted .
4. The letter U lacks a circle .
5. The letter R lacks a hook .
6. The letter E in the word HALERU is without an accent.

Kde dmov muj
Designer: Josef Manes
Engraver: Karel Seizinger
1 Kc wine red
The stamps were issued on occasion of the 100th anniversary of the song “Kde domov muj?” (Where is my home?) , the design issued both in sheet and souvenir sheet form.
The sheet issue was printed by means of rotary steel engraving, with vertical rows on either side of the sheet consisting of small blank coupons.
Perforation: line 9 3/4
The souvenir sheet issue was printed from flat plates in small sheets containing fifteen stamps (5 x 3) , ornamented with the dates 1834 and 1934. The title, score and text of the Czechoslovakia anthem “Kde domov muj”, on soft, thick paper, without gum.
Dimensions of the souvenir sheet: 176.5 x 284 mm.
Perforation: frame, approx. 13 3/4 x 13
Validity: Dec. 21, 1934 to Feb. 28, 1937
Steel engraving – Dimensions of design : 30.3 x 17.4 mm.


Genuine
1. In the date 1934, the oval portion of the numeral 9 is slightly open.
2. The neck of the plowman is divided into 4 white, oblong skew areas.
3. In the background of the title CESKOSLOVENSKO there are eleven fine lines.

4 . Interrupted line.
5. The title CESKOSLOVENSKO is placed on the second line from the frame.
6 . In the second letter O there are three lines.
7 . On the head of the reclining boy there is a mark in the shape of a hook.
8. The ear of the ox is joined to the head by means of an open flat area.
9 . The two peaks are unequal in height, the right hand one being lower.

Forgeries
There are at least 5 varieties of forgeries all relatively well done.
This is one example, the traits shown comprise all the known forgeries.

1. In the date 1934 a short distinct line (s) appears between the numeral 1 and 9.
Or the oval is closed.
2. The neck of the plowman is divided into two white areas, often inked over.
Or the 2 areas may be indistinguishable.
3. The background of the title CESKOSLOVENSKO simulates the genuine.
Or there may be a dot between the letters C and E and the child lacks hair.

4. The line is NOT interrupted, a KEY point in all the forgeries
5. The title CESKOSLOVENSKO simulates the genuine, though the details of the individual letters are coarser.
6. In the second letter 0 there are three lines.
7. On the head of the reclining boy there is a mark in the shape of a closed hook.
Or it mat be a dot.
8. The ear of the ox is not connected with its back, and the area beneath the neck lacks shading.
9. The peaks simulate the genuine.
Or they may be of equal height and the right one may be very faint.
Dots and lines are lacking or appear in other places.
The forgery designs are smaller measuring 30.0 x 17 mm

Olympic Congress
50 h + 50h green, blue overprint
100 h + 100 h red, blue overprint
200 h + 200 h blue, red overprint
Stamps issued to mark the occasion of the meeting of the International Olympic Congress in Prague.
Overprinted:
CONGRES OLYMP. INTERNAT.
PRAHA 1925

The paper, watermark and gum are like those of the basic issue.
The colour of the overprint is glossy, translucent.
Perforation: line 13 3/4 to 14 3/4
Validity: May 11, 1925 to June 30, 1925
Raised overprint, engraved.
Overprint dimensions: a. 16.3 mm, b. 9.0 mm.

  


Genuine
1. The letters 0 are narrow.
2. The curves in the letter S are evenly rounded.
3. The center portion of the letter M reaches the base line.
4. The inner horizontal line in the letter H in the word PRAHA is located slightly above the center.
5. In the date 1925, the vertical line in the numeral 5 is sloped to the right at the top.

Forgeries (at least 3 known)
Dimensions
a. 16 mm., 16.2 mm., 15.8mm.
b. 9 mm., 8.8mm., 9.2mm.
All have variations from the original traits

VIII Sokol Congress
Commemorative stamps for the VIIIth All-Sokol Congress.
The basic stamps of the Anniversary issue of 1923 with the overprint:
VIII SLET VSESOKOLSKY
PRAHA 1926
50 h + 50 h green, blue overprint
100 h + 100 h red, blue overprint
200 h + 200 h blue, carmine overprint
300 h + 300 h brown, carmine overprint
Paper, watermark and gum are the same as those of the basic . stamps.
The colour of the overprint is translucent and glossy.
The outlines are uniform, sharp, and the impression of the overprint is apparent on the back side of the stamp.
The perforation is line 13 3/4 to 14 3/4.
Validity: June 1, 1926 to July 31, 1926
Raised overprint, engraved.
Overprint dimensions:
a. 16.3 mm.
b. 9.0 mm.

  


Genuine
1. The letters S and S are uniformly closed. z. The period following VIII is located on the base.
3. The letters O in the word VSESOKOLSKY are equally wide.
4. The horizontal line in the letter H is centered.
5. The numeral 6 in the date extends below the base line, and the top is curved.

Forgeries (at least 3 known)
Dimensions
a. 16.5 mm., 16.1 mm., 16.4 mm.
b. 9.0 mm., 8.8 mm., 9.0 mm.
All have variations from the original traits

B. I .T . 1937
At the convening of the International Bureau of Labor (Bureau International du Travail) in Prague between October 6 and 9, 1937.
Overprint
B.I.T. 1937
50 h dark green (overprint dark blue).
1.50 Kc vermilion red (overprint blue-black).
2 Kc dark green (overprint light blue).
Perforation: line 12 1/4.
Validity : October 6, 1937 to October 31, 1937.
Overprint typo graphed.
Overprint dimensions : 10.3 x 1.5 mm.

  
Genuine
1. Numeral 1 is sliced off at the top from left to right.
2. Numeral 3 & 7 are raised above the base line and the 3 is slightly higher than the 7.
3. The periods behind the letters B. I .T. are square in shape .

Forgery (1 known)
1. The upper part of the numeral 1 is not sliced off .
2 . The numeral 3 is on the same base line as the rest of the characters.
3 . The periods behind the letters B.I.T. are nearly round in shape.

Jubilee 1923 Issue

  

  
Sc B133-136

This series exhibits one of the first watermarks, a monogram “CSP”
However these were well forged and only vary slightly from the genuine in their shape.


Genuine watermark (negative)
The main key of the fake is the outer frame which is thick in the genuine and thin and even missing in places in the fake
The dots that make up the background are also much larger than the genuine

Valid Oct. 27, 1923 to Feb. 29, 1924
Line perforation, 13.75 x 14.75
Design size, 20.0 x 23.5mm


Genuine Traits
1. The hair is combed to the left
2. There are 2 lines above the “28”
3. The mouth is irregularly shaped
4. The eyeglass is a well defined oval
5. There are 21 lines in the background
6. There are 5 lines in the “O”

Forgeries
I do not have copies of the forgeries but one can expect any number of the following in the various forgeries;
1. The hair is combed to the right or downwards
2. The are 4 lines above the “28” or 2 with one touching the number
3. The mouth is shaped as a triangle
4. The eyeglass is badly shaped
5. There are 17 lines in the background
6. There are 4 lines in the “O”
7. The shading in the upper ear is missing or different.
8. The design sizes tend to be smaller
9. The perforations are either  11.5 or 14

Czechoslovakia – Commemorative Cancel Forgeries

Originally, individual stamps or blocks were cancelled at the post offices with a commemorative cancellation either green, violet or blue . A small number of stamps were cancelled in red by the Ministry of Posts. For selling the remainder of the stock, additional rubber stamps were made privately and many stamps were cancelled with these. These cancellations were forged.

  
The 2 stamps used

The Linden Leaf
Overprint designer : Al. Mudrunka
The rubber hand stamps were made by the Graphic Works of Prague .


Genuine Type I
1. All three sides of the triangular petiole are curved inward .
2 . The letter O in the word SIROTAM is flattened .
3 . The number 3 in the date has longer horizontal top line.
4 . The vertical axis of the letter S in the word SIROTAM points to the center of the cancellation .
5 . Both outer lines of the letter M in the same word are vertical.
6 . The letter P in the word PO is unbroken .
7 . The horizontal lines in the letter A of the word PRAHA are nearly the same height as he crossbar of the letter H.
8 . In the number 1 (PRAHA 1) the leg deviates from the vertical line and is longer .


Genuine Type II
1. All three sides of the triangular petiole are straight .
2. The letter O in the word SIROTAM is flattened.
3. The number 3 in the date has a shorter top horizontal line.
4. In the word SIROTAM the vertical axis of the letter S points toward the center of the cancellation.
5. Both outside legs of the letter M are vertical .
6. In the word PO the letter P is unbroken.
7. In the letter A of the word PRAHA the horizontal lines are at nearly the same level as the cross bar of the letter H.
8. The leg in the number 1 (PRAHA 1) deviates from the vertical line and is longer.


Forgery
Cancellation colours are green, red, black or violet .
1. The sides of the triangular petiole are straight (as in Type II), and the axis of the triangle does not point toward the center of the cancellation .
2. The letter 0 in the word SIROTAM is somewhat flattened.
3. The number 3 in the date has a different shape .
4. In the letter S of the word SIROTAM the vertical axis does not point toward the center of the cancellation.
5. Both legs of the letter M are not an angle.
6. The letter P in the word PO is open at the top .
7. The horizontal lines in the letter A of the word PRAHA are much lower than the cross bar of the letter H.
8. The number 1 (PRAHA 1) has the leg deviating less from the vertical line and is shorter.


Round cancellation

Cancellation designer: Al. Mudrunka
The rubber stamp was made by Stencu Graphic Works, Prague.
The original colour was blue. Violet blue was also used as less frequently red.


Genuine Round Cancel
1. Both legs of the letter M are vertical .
2. The cross bars in the letter A of the word PRAHA are at almost the same height as the cross bar in the letter H.
3. The number 1 (PRAHA 1) has the leg of the vertical line slightly slanted and longer.
4. In the letter E of the word LEGIONARICH the middle horizontal line is somewhat shorter compared to the top and bottom one’s.


Forgery
The forged cancellation is found in various colours such as blue, violet, red and black . They can be differentiated from the genuine cancellations by the intensity of the colour which most often penetrates through the stamp itself .
Forgery
1. Both legs of the letter M are at an angle .
2. The cross bars in the letter A of the word PRAHA are much lower than the cross bar of the letter H.
3. The number 1 (PRAHA 1) has the small stroke at a lesser angle and is shorter .
4. The letter E of the word LEGIONARICH has a middle horizontal line which is longer than the other two cross bars .

There are also trial cancels of these in a small and large linden leaf.

Czechoslovakia 1937 Miniature Sheet

In conjunction with the 1937 national philatelic exhibition in Bratislava, a miniature sheet measuring 150 x 165mm was issued.
Shortly afterwards a forgery of the sheet appeared in anticipation of a high value which did not materialize.
Most of the sheets were confiscated and destroyed.
The forgeries mainly appear as single stamps.


A genuine sheet


A genuine single
1. The end is round with a thin line
2. There are 2 faint dots above the “h”
3. Note the thin and even shape of the linden blooms.


The forgery
1. Thick uneven letters
2. No dots above the “h”
3. Thick border and irregular dots
4. Coarse linden leaves
5. No line in the end

There is another forgery noted  that appeared in 1939 which is much better
There is no accent on the “A” of the sheet word “CELOSTATNI” and the “7” of “1937” is higher than the other numbers.
It is a much darker brown-red
The end may have a line in it
The linden blossoms are thinner as with the genuine
The dots above the “h” are missing

Special Delivery Forgeries
Only 3 values were issued in 1919 – 1920 and the forgeries are fairly easily spotted

  
Sc E1 – red-violet, 27 x 19mm (valid Feb. 10/1919 – April 30/1921)  /   Sc E2 – light or grass green, 27 x 19mm (valid Feb. 10/1919 – July 301/1921)


Sc E3 – bronze-brown, 27x 19mm (valid Dec. 20/1920 – July 31, 1924)

Sc E2
The stamps were issued for payment of additional surcharge for special (speedy) delivery of printed matter. Later they were also used as regular additional franking.
Printed by the Czech Graphic Union on yellowish paper.
A small issue (12,500 singles) was printed on white paper. These stamps are frequently forged
by chemical discoloration.
Numerous colour shades.
Validity: Feb. 1, 1919 to April 30, 1921
Typography – Design dimensions: 27 x 19 mm.


Genuine Sc E2
Characteristics of all the issues
1. The eye had an inner circle and does not touch the top of the head
2. Inside the circle, there is a white dot
3. Background is made of regular dashes

Forgeries
2 h
The design is coarse
The paper is heavier
The background is very irregular
In the 2 H the eye is open at the top and the inner circle is filled
There is no dot in the bottom circle

5 h
The design is made up of very heavy coarse lines
The eye clearly merges with the head
There is no dot in the bottom circle

Gutter Pairs


The same traits previously described are valid for the genuine stamps

Forgeries
Here again the forgery traits described above apply
Most importantly, the forgers apparently did not check the spacing and thus produced very different pairs.
The 2 h spacing is 32.8 mm
The 5 h is 31 mm

The 2 h has a control number of – .40
The common control number of the 5 h is 2.50

The yellow paper stamps that are either light or chemically altered as to appear to be on white paper, are easily discerned under ultraviolet light when compared to same value original.

Boy Scouts Delivery Service Stamps

In October 1918, in the first days of independence of the Czehoslovak Republic, an auxiliary postal service of Boy Scouts was organized for the needs of the Prague National Committee.
The Prague Kolman Printing Office issued two stamps of the l0 h and 20 h values. The die was engraved by J. Panenka.
Letters to the committee were cancelled with a round cachet bearing in the center the initials N.V. (National Committee) or a round cachet POSTA SKAUTU – PRAHA – 1918, was taken over by Boy Scouts and delivered. As well, the letters were printed with a two-line cachet, DOPIS OD SKAUTA …PREVZAL which had to be filled in by the signature of the delivering Boy Scout and the receiver of the letter.

These letters are rare, especially the double line ones. Many were later fabricated falsely, however, covers with counterfeit stamps are noted in the Pittermann Classification but appear to be rare.
The stamps were printed and perforated with a colored die cut all in one operation.


Genuine
Design dimensions: 22 X 27 mm
1. Even perforations and die outline visible
2 . The crown on the lion’s head is precisely shaped , with the cross centered.
3 . In the mane there is a small colored line .
4. The outline of the body was accomplished by a single continuous stroke of the burring tool.
5 & 6. The letter D appears beneath the letter S, and the letter I is located under the spaces between U and Z.
7 . Beneath the mane, the left leg is extended into the body by means of a lengthy line.
8. The hooks over the letters S and C are sharp
9. Small circle with color in the center


Forgery A
Design dimensions: 22 X 26 mm
1. Uneven perforations lacking color die cut
2. No line in the mane
3. Outline is broken
4. Small color dot in left foot
5 & 6. D & I out of position
7. Short wide line
8. Few veins in leaves
9. Small hooks over letters


Forgery B
Design dimensions: 22 X 26 mm
1. Uneven perforations lacking color die cut
2. Large round with tiny color dot in the center
3. Crown is misshapen
4. No line in the mane
5. Feet are crudely drawn
6 & 7. D & I out of position
8. Tiny hooks over letters
9. Letters are uneven, slanted “S”


Forgery C
Design dimensions: 21.2 X 26.5 mm
Overall very crude
1. Large circle
2. Crown very badly done
3. No line and very little overall details
4. Large feet and front paws
5 & 6. Letters “D” & “I” badly out of line
7. No veins in leaves and stems don’t converge
8. Crude uneven letters
9. Large hooks, one touching letter
10. Uneven lines out of place
11. Perforations totally off

The forgeries of the 20 h are similar to the 10 h other than the letter “D” & “I” positions as shown in the genuine below